Predictive Connection for 2100 between Atmospheric Carbon, Global Warming and Ocean Height Based on Climate History

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Thomas F. Valone


Many recent climate panels and committees have predicted a one and a half (1.5°C) to two degrees (2°C) Celsius as an achievable global limit to climate change [1]. Instead, this review has found that observationally informed projections of climate science underlying climate change offer a different outlook for the most likely outcome for 2100 of five to six-degree (5-6°C) increase as “most accurate” with regard to present trends, climate history and models [2]. The most significant result from the review is a quantitative, linear global temperature link to carbon dioxide levels, which has a short temporal feedback loop. The Vostok ice core temperature and CO2 values for the past 420,000 years, with sea level estimates have produced “Hansen’s Graph” [3]. Analysis results in an equation for global average temperature change and an indebted sea level rise, from any CO2 change. The best-performing climate change models and observational analysis project more warming than the average model often relied upon [4]. World atmosphere, temperature, and sea level trends for 2100 and beyond are examined. A CO2 experimental analysis proves its dramatic heat-entrapment versus air which relates to the global atmospheric system. Policy-relevant climate adaptation, including carbon capture, positive individual action, zero and negative emissions are reviewed, including Hansen (1988) projected temperature increase for 2019.

Climate change, temperature, thermal forcing, carbon dioxide, PETM, carbon emission, carbon capture.

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How to Cite
Valone, T. F. (2019). Predictive Connection for 2100 between Atmospheric Carbon, Global Warming and Ocean Height Based on Climate History. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, 9(10), 562-593.
Review Article


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