Main Article Content
A rice variety Jyothi (PTB 39) is a red kernelled with bold grain, popular in the region of Kerala, India used in the study. Plants were grown in pots under three different conditions, natural solar UV-B conditions, UV-B excluded condition using UV-B filters and supplemental UV-B using UV-B lamps along with ambient solar radiation. During the study period, UV-B radiation was in the range of 1.30 to 3.58 Wm2 which affected the productivity of the crop under open solar condition. A decrease in morphological traits like plant height, number of tillers, flag leaf angle and increase in leaf thickness were observed. Physiological parameters, leaf gas exchange parameters and biochemical constituents such as chlorophyll content also recorded less value under high UV-B condition along with the high content of protective compounds such as flavonoid content, catalase and PAL activity. The phenophases of the crop were also delayed by 4-5 days under UV-B radiation exposed conditions. All these negative impacts of UV-B radiation on crop leads to restricted filling of grain, lesser harvest index and grain development leading to a decrease in yield and yield attributing characters.
Vass I. Adverse effects of UV-B light on the structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus. In: M. Pessarakli (Eds), Handbook of Photosynthesis. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York. 1997;931-949.
Ajavon AN, Albritton DL, Watson RT. Scientific assessment of ozone depletion: Global ozone research and monitoring project. Report No. 50. World Meteorological Organization (WMO), Geneva. 2006;572.
UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme). Environmental Effects of Ozone Depletion and its Interactions with Climate Change; 2014
WMO (World Meteorological Organization). Scientific assessment of ozone depletion: (2014) World Meteorological Organization, Global ozone research and monitoring project, report no. 56, Geneva, Switzerland; 2014.
Lee AM, Jones RL, Kilbane-Dawe I, Pyle JA. Diagnosing ozone loss in the extratropical lower stratosphere. J Geophys Res. 2002;107(10).
Hadjinicolaou P, Pyle J. The impact of Arctic ozone depletion on northern middle latitudes: Interannual variability and dynamical control. J Atmos Chem. 2004;47:25-43.
McKenzie RL, Aucamp PJ, Bais AF, Bjorn LO, Ilyas M. Changes in biologically-active ultraviolet radiation reaching the Earth’s surface. Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2007;6:218-231.
Rozema J, Chardonnens A, Tosserams M, Hafkenscheid R, Bruijnzeel S. Leaf thickness and UV-B absorbing pigments of plant in relation to an elevational gradient along the Blue Mountains, Jamaica. Plant Ecol. 1997;128:151-159.
Kakani VG, Reddy KR, Zhao D, Mohammed AR. Ultraviolet-B radiation effects on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) morphology and anatomy. Ann Bot. 2003;817-826.
Potters G, Pasternak TP, Guisez Y, Jansen MAK. Different stresses, similar morphogenic responses: integrating a plethora of pathways. Plant Cell Environ. 2009;32:158-169.
Searles PS, Flint SD, Caldwell MM. A meta-analysis of plant field studies simulating stratospheric ozone depletion. Oecologia. 2001;127:1-10.
Kakani VG, Reddy KR, Zhao D, Sailaja K. Field crop responses to ultraviolet-B radiation: A review. Agric For Met. 2003; 120:191-218.
Roro AG, Terf MT, Solhaug KA, Tsegaye A, Olsena JE. Torre S. The impact of UV radiation at high altitudes close to the equator on morphology and productivity of pea (Pisum sativum) in different seasons. S Afr J Bot. 2016;106:119-128.
Mazza CA, Battista D, Zima AM, Szwarcberg-Bracchitta M, Giordano CV, Acevedo A, Scopel AL, Ballare CL. The effects of solar ultraviolet-B radiation on the growth and yield of barley are accompanied by increased DNA damage and antioxidant responses. Plant Cell Environ. 1999; 22:61-70.
Bandurska H, Pietrowska-Borek M, Cieslak M. Response of barley seedlings to water deficit and enhanced UV-B irradiation acting alone and in combination. Acta Physiol Plant. 2012;34: 161-171.
De Britto AJ, Jeevitha M, Raj TLS. Alterations of protein and DNA profiles of Zea mays L. under UV - B radiation. J Stress Physiol Biochem. 2011;7(4):232-240.
Campi M, D’Andrea L, Emiliani J, Casati P. Participation of chromatin remodeling proteins in the repair of UV-B damaged DNA. Plant Physiol. 2012;158(2):981-995.
Li YA, Zu YQ, Chen HY, Chen JJ, Yang JL, Hu ZD. Intraspecific responses in crop growth and yield of 20 wheat cultivars to enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation under field conditions. Field Crops Res. 2000;67:25-33.
Agrawal SB, Rathore D. Changes in oxidative stress defense system in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) cultivars grown with and without mineral nutrients and irradiated by supplemental ultraviolet-B. Environ Exp Bot. 2007;59:21-23.
Takeuchi A, Yamaguchi T, Hidema J, Strid A, Kumagai T. Changes in synthesis and degradation of Rubisco and LHCII with leaf age in rice (Oryza sativa L.) growing under supplementary UV-B radiation. Plant Cell Environ. 2002;25:695-706.
Mohammed AR, Tarpley L. High night temperature and plant growth regulator effects on spikelet sterility, grain characteristics and yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants. Can J Plant Sci. 2011; 91(2):283-291.
Tapia FML, Toro AG, Parra RB, Riquelme EA. Photosensitivity of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings exposed to ultraviolet-B radiation. Chilean J Agric Res. 2010; 70(1):16-25.
Kataria S, Guruprasad KN. Exclusion of solar UV components improves growth and performance of Amaranthus tricolor varieties. Scientia Hortic. 2014;174:36-45.
Liu B, Liu X, Lia YS, Herbert SJ. Effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on seed growth characteristics and yield components in soybean. Field Crops Res. 2013;154:58-163.
Gitz DC, Liu-Gitz L, Britz SJ, Sullivan SJ. Ultraviolet-B effects on glasshouse grown soybean (Glycine max) cultivars. Environ Exp Bot. 2005;53:343-355.
Chimphango SBM, Brown CF, Musil CF, Dakora FD. Effects of UV-B radiation on seed yield of Glycine max and an assessment of F1 generation progeny for carryover effects. Physiol Plant. 2007;131: 378-386.
Keiller DR, Mackerness SAH, Holmes MG. The action of a range of supplementary ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths on photosynthesis in Brassica napus L. in the natural environment: effects on PS II, CO2 assimilation and level of chloroplast proteins. Photosyn Res. 2003;75:139-150.
Pfündel EE. Action of UV and visible radiation on chlorophyll fluorescence from dark-adapted grape leaves (Vitis vinifera L.). Photosynth Res. 2003;75:29-39.
Lidon F, Ramalho JC. Impact of UV-B irradiation on photosynthetic performance and chloroplast membrane components in Oryza sativa L. J Photochem Photobio Biol. 2011;104:457-466.
Singh RB. Research and developmental strategies for intensification of rice production in the Asia-Pacific region. In: Muralidharan K, Siddiq EA, editors. New Frontiers in Rice Research. Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad; 1993.
Rozema J, Van de Staiij J, Bjorn LO, Caldwell MM. UV-B as an environmental factor in plant life: Stress and regulation. Trends Ecol Environ. 1997;12:22-28.
Kumagai T, Hidema J, Kang HS, Sato T. Effects of supplemental UV-B radiation on the growth and yield of two cultivars of Japanese lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.) under the field in a cool rice-growing region of Japan. Agric Ecosys Environ. 2001;83: 201-208.
Mohammed AR, Rounds EW, Tarpley L. Response of rice (Oryza sativa L.) tillering to sub-ambient levels of ultraviolet-B radiation. J Agron Crop Sci. 2007;193:324-335.
Almeida SLD, Schmidt EC, Rodrigues AC, Bouzon ZL. Effects of Natural Radiation, PAR and Artificial Ultraviolet Radiation‐B on the Ultrastructure and Histochemistry of Leaf of Oryza sativa L. Am J Plant Sci. 2012;3:1361-1368.
Hidema J, Zhang WH, Yamamoto M, Sato T, Kumagai T. Change in grain size and grain storage protein of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in response to elevated UV-B radiation under outdoor condition. J Radiat Res. 2005;46:146-149.
Yoshida S, Navasero SA, Ramirez EA. Effects of silica and nitrogen supply on some leaf characters of the rice plant. Plant Soil. 1969;31:48-56.
Hiscox JD, Israelstam GF. A method for extraction of chlorophylls from leaf tissue without maceration. Can J Bot. 1979;57: 1332-1334.
Mirecki RM, Teramura AH. Effects of ultraviolet-B irradiance on soybean. The dependence of plant sensitivity on the photosynthetic photon flux density during and after leaf expansion. Plant Physiol. 1984;74(8):475-480.
Barber JM. Catalase and peroxidase in primary leaves during development and senescence. Z Pfl Physiol. 1980;97:135-144.
Brueske CH. Phenylalanine ammonialyase activity in tomato roots infected and resistant to the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. Physiol Plant Pathol. 1980;16:409-414.
Mohammed AR, Tarpley L. Effects of elevated ultraviolet-B radiation on productive tillers, spikelet sterility and grain characteristics of southern US rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars. J Agron Crop Sci. 2009;195:292-300.
Jansen MAK. Ultraviolet-B radiation effects on plants: induction of morphogenic responses. Physiol Plant. 2002;116:423-429.
Krizek DT. Influence of PAR and UV-A in determining plant sensitivity and photomorphogenic responses to UV-B radiation. Photochem Photobiol. 2004;79:307-315.
Ravindran KC, Indrajith A, Pratheesh PV, Sanjiviraja K, Balakrishnan V. Effect of ultraviolet-B radiation on biochemical and antioxidant defence system in Indigofera tinctoria L. seedlings. Int J Eng Sci Technol. 2010;2(5):226-232.
Dutta RK, Baser MA, Khanm S. Plant architecture and growth characteristics of fine grain and aromatic rice and their relation with grain yield. Int Rice Commission Newslett. 2002;51:51-55.
Saile MM, Tevini M. Effects of solar UV-B radiation on growth, flowering and yield of central and southern European bush bean cultivars (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Plant Ecol. 1997;128:115-125.
Rajendiran K, Ramanujam MP. Improvement of biomass partitioning, flowering and yield by triadimefon in UV-B stressed Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek. Biologia. Plant. 2004;48(1):145-148.
Sikuku PA, Netondo GW, Musyimi DM, Onyango JC. Effects of water deficit on days to maturity and yield of three nerica rainfed rice varieties. J Agric Biol Sci. 2010;5(3):1-9.
YunSheng L, Yan H, YongXiu L, Jing Z, Chang C, TingTing Z, MingHao J, HanJin K. Effect of enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation on physiological properties of different cultivars of barley. J Ecol Rural Environ. 2011;27(4):51-55.
Basahi J, Iqbal M, Ismail M, Ibrahim AH. Effects of enhanced UV-B radiation and drought Stress on photosynthetic performance of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. Romaine) plants. Annu Res Rev Bio. 2014;4(11):1739-1756.
Zlatev ZS, Lidon FJL, Kaimakanova M. Plant physiological responses to UV-B radiation. Emir J Food Agric. 2012;24(6): 481-501.
Petrulova V, Ducaiova Z, Repcak M. Short-term UV-B dose stimulates production of protective metabolites in Matricaria chamomilla leaves. Photochem Photobiol. 2014;90(5):1061-1068.
Tevini M, Teramura AH. UV-B effects on terrestrial plants. Photochem Photobiol. 1989;50:479-487.
Guendous A, Guessoum S, Maamri K, Benidir M, Hafsi M. Canopy Temperature Efficiency as Indicators for Drought Tolerance in Durum Wheat (Triticum Durum Desf.) in Semi-Arid Conditions. J Agric Sustain. 2012; 1(1): 23-38.
Munjal R, Rana RK. Evaluation of physiological traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) for terminal high temperature tolerance. Proc. Tenth Int Wheat Genet Symp Poestum. 2003;2(3): 804-805.
Salama MH, Al-Watban AA, Anoud T, Al-Fughom. Effect of ultraviolet radiation on chlorophyll, carotenoid, protein and proline contents of some annual desert plants. Saudi J Biol Sci. 2011; 18:79-86.
Day TA, Howells BW, Ruhland CT. Change in growth and pigment concentration with leaf age in pea under modulated UV-B radiation field treatments. Plant Cell Environ. 1996;19:101-108.
Marwood CA, Greenberg BM. Effect of supplementary UV-B radiation on chlorophyll systems during chloroplast development in Sspirodela oligarrhiza. J. Photochem Photobiol. 1996;64: 664-670.
Ranjbarfordoei R, Samson PV, Damme. Photosynthesis performance in sweet almond [Prunus dulcis (Mill) D. Webb] exposed to supplemental UV-B radiation. Photosynthetica. 2011;49:107-111.
Wu XC, Fang CX, Chen JY, Wang QS, Chen T, Lin WX, Huang ZL. Aproteomic analysis of leaf responses to enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation in two rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars differing in UV sensitivity. J Plant Biol. 2011;54:251-261.
Tevini et al. Tevini M, Braun J, Fieser G. The protective function of the epidermal layer of rye seedlings against ultraviolet-B radiation. Photochem Photobiol. 1991;53:329-333.
Braun J, Tevini M. Regulation of UV-B protective pigment synthesis in the epidermal layer of Rye seedlings (Secale cereale L. cv. Kustro). Photochem Photobiol. 1993;57:318-323.
Evans CA, Miller NJ, Papaga G. Antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds. Trends Plant Sci. 1997;2:152-159.
Ziska LH, Teramura AH. CO2 enhancement of growth and photosynthesis in rice: Modifications by increased ultraviolet-B radiation. Plant Physiol. 1992;99:473-481.
Dai Q, Coronel VP, Vergara BS, Barnes PW, Quintos AT. Ultraviolet-B radiation effects growth and physiology of four rice cultivars. Crop Sci. 1992;32:1269-1274.
Yuan L, Xiao G, ZhaoHua G, YongMei H, JianJun C, YanQun Z. Effect of enhanced UV-B radiation and inoculated blast isolate (Magnaporthe grisea) on phenylalanine ammonial-yase activity and flavanoid content in seedlings of two rice cultivars. Chinese J Eco-Agric. 2010;8(4): 856-860.
Foyer CR, Lelandais M, Kunert K. Photooxidative stress in plants. Physiol Plant. 1994;92:696-717.
Mahdavian K, Kalantari KM, Ghorbanli M, Torkzade M. The effects of salicylic acid on pigment contents in ultraviolet radiation stressed pepper plant. Biol Plant. 2008;52:170-172.
Xu C, Natarajan S, Sullivan JH. Impact of solar ultraviolet-B radiation on the antioxidant defence system in soybean lines differing in flavonoid contents. Environ Exp Bot. 2008;63:39-48.
Fedina I, Hidema J, Velitchkova M, Georgieva K, Nedeva D. UVB induced stress responses in three rice cultivars. Biol Plant. 2010;54(3):571-574.
He Y, Zhan F, Zu Y, Liu C, Li Y. Effect of elevated UV-B radiation on the antioxidant system of two rice landraces in paddy fields on yuanyang terrace. Int J Agric Biol. 2014;14:585-590.
Sarma AD, Sharma R. Purification and characterization of UV-B induced phenylalanine ammonia-lyase from rice seedlings. Phytochemistry. 1999;50:729-737.
Khan W, Prithiviraj B, Smith DL. Chitosan and chitin oligomers increase phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and tyrosine ammonia-lyase activities in soybean leaves. J Plant Physiol. 2003; 160:859-863.
Shaukat SS, Farooq, MA, Siddiqui MF, Zaidi S. Effect of enhanced UV-B radiation on germination, seedling growth and biochemical responses of Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper. Pak J Bot. 2013;45(3):779-785.
Yuan L, Ming Y, Xunling W. Effects of enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation on crop structure, growth and yield components of spring wheat under field conditions. Field Crops Res. 1998;57:253-263.
Teramura AH. Effects of ultraviolet-B irradiances on soybean: I. Importance of photosynthetically active radiation in evaluating ultraviolet-B irradiance effects on soybean and wheat growth. Physiol Plant. 1980;48: 333-339.