International Journal of Environment and Climate Change http://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC <p style="text-align: justify;">A sustainable world is one in which human needs are met equitably without sacrificing the ability of future generations to meet their needs and without harm to the environment and ecosystem function and service. Meeting this formidable challenge requires a substantial effort under climate change impact, economic development and population growth. <strong>International Journal of Environment and Climate Change (ISSN:&nbsp;2581-8627)</strong> aims to publish original research articles, review articles and short communications. This is a quality controlled, double blind peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal. It has long been recognized that the long-term viability of natural capital is critical for many areas of human endeavour under climate change impact. The aims are to support engineering science research with the goal of promoting sustainable development with environmentally benign engineered systems that support human well-being and that are also compatible with sustaining natural (environmental) systems.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US International Journal of Environment and Climate Change 2581-8627 Ecosystem-based Adaptation to Climate Change – Policy Making and Institutional Framework in Kenya’s Mt. Elgon Forest Ecosystem http://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30149 <p>Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) is a strategy that relies on forest landscape’s biodiversity management and restoration to enhance the sustainable production and supply of ecosystem goods and services as alternative livelihoods to cushion the society against the negative impacts of climate change. As climate change becomes a reality, adaptation measures which are cost effective and economically beneficial are urgently required. Mount Elgon ecosystem in the western region of Kenya has EbA characteristics which could offer longer term solutions to adaptation to climate change impacts while providing a range of other benefits in terms of ecosystem goods and services. This paper established the existing capacities for Ecosystem based adaptation inclusion in the sub-national adaptation plans and policies in order to improve resilience to climate change impacts in the Mt. Elgon ecosystem. To achieve this, a descriptive survey was carried involving 405 household and 51 government and civil society respondent drawn from Saboti, Kiminini, Endebess and Kwanza sub-counties, Transnzoia County in Kenya. Results showed that there were good institutional representations in Mt. Elgon ecosystem with line ministries largely being responsible (63.4%) for the management of the individual natural resources that occur in the Mt. Elgon ecosystem while a few others were either co-managed (9.7%) or managed by the County Government of Transnzoia (9.7%). Majority (77%) of household respondents observed uncoordinated approach in ecosystem management. This should be addressed in order to increase ecosystem health which eventually leads to enhanced EbA services. Majority (73.2%) of government and civil society respondents cite inter-sectoral policy inconsistencies and conflicts as contributors to degradation of ecosystem health in the study area. This too has impacted negatively on EbA. A major conclusion in the study was that consolidation and harmonization of ecosystem policies in the Mt. Elgon’s ecosystem will lead to a healthy landscape that provides sustainable EbA services.</p> Jusper Maranga Omwenga Paul Omondi Fatuma Daudi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-30 2019-10-30 682 690 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i1230149 A Study on Farmers Knowledge about Crop Insurance Schemes in Northern Karnataka http://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30150 <p>Agriculture production and farm income in India are frequently affected by natural disasters such as droughts, floods, cyclones, storms, landslides and earthquakes. In recent times, mechanisms like contract farming and future trading have been established which are expected to provide some insurance against price fluctuations directly or indirectly. But, agricultural insurance is considered as an important mechanism to address the risk of output and income effectively which is resulting from various natural and manmade events. The study was conducted in Karnataka State during the year 2017-18 by using “Ex-post- facto” research design. Belgavi, Dharwad, Haveri and Vijayapura districts were selected purposely based on more number of insured farmers. Further, two taluks from each district and from each taluk three villages (i.e. total 24 villages) were randomly selected. Sample size for the study was 240. Purposive sampling procedure was used. Descriptive statistics and multiple linear regression model were applied to analyze the data. The findings of the study revealed that, 44.17 per cent of the insured farmers belonged to low knowledge level followed by medium (37.92%) and high (17.91%) level with respect to Crop Insurance Schemes. The variable ‘credit availed’ had positive and significant relationship at one per cent level of probability. The co-efficient of determination (R<sup>2</sup>) was 0.427 which indicated that 42.70 per cent of the variation in the knowledge level of insured farmers was together explained by all the independent variables. Thus, concerned officers should conduct awareness&nbsp; programmes from time to time by using different extension teaching methods like trainings, workshops, distribution of pamphlets, road shows, advertisement through television, newspaper, radio, mobile SMS etc to enhance the knowledge level of farmers.</p> S. K. Jamanal K. V. Natikar S. V. Halakatti ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-07 2019-11-07 691 700 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i1230150 Mass Concentration and Size-distribution of Atmospheric Particulate Matter in Plateau State, Nigeria http://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30151 <p>The mass concentration and size distribution of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) was measured in three major towns in Plateau state. The CW-HAT200 PM<sub>2.5</sub>, PM<sub>10</sub> dust particle counter was used to measure the particle size in each major location within Jos, Shendam and Pankshin. The results revealed that both PM<sub>2.5</sub> and PM<sub>10</sub> concentration were high in morning hours in most of the measured locations. These values were however found decreasing in the afternoon. The higher value of PM<sub>2.5</sub> and PM<sub>10</sub> observed in the morning hours in some locations within the study area can be attributed to the high volume of motorists plying the roads during those hours. However, some locations within the study area their PM<sub>2.5</sub> and PM<sub>10</sub> were higher in the afternoon hours than morning hours. The PM sampling respirable dust sampler (AMP460NL model) was placed on the elevated platform of 1.5 m high and 20 cm away from obstacles in order to avoid any obstruction of the air from tall buildings and trees etc. Measurements were taken after 8-hours per location and the average air flow rate, sample time, initial and final mass of the filter paper were used to calculate the mass concentration of the suspended particulate matter in each locations. The mass concentration of the suspended particulate matter were higher in dry season than in the rain season for all locations. This can be attributed to the dust usually experienced during the dry season on the Plateau.</p> E. C. Hemba E. A. Trisma T. J. Ikyumbur ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-09 2019-11-09 701 707 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i1230151 Estimation by Inverse Approach of a Transmissivity Field over the Entire Continental Terminal Aquifer of Abidjan http://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30152 <p>Hydraulic characterization of aquifer systems is important for the development of exploitation scenarios and groundwater management strategies. Especially in lithologically heterogeneous aquifers, local scale variations in transmissivity (T) may not be neglected. Field scale transmissivity values are usually derived from pumping tests, but in most cases their number and availability are rather limited. Thus, direct measurement of transmissivity over an entire aquifer is expensive and technically almost impossible. In such situations, inverse hydrodynamic modelling is the appropriate solution. In this article, the real transmissivity field of the aquifer of the Continental Terminal of Abidjan is investigated by a multi-scale parametrization that allows to bypass the problem of scale change and to determine this hydrodynamic parameter over the entire aquifer. This hydrogeological modelling of the Continental Terminal aquifer identified a structure of 153 nodes in size as the closest structure to that of the Continental Terminal aquifer. The transmissivity field associated with this optimal size, ranging from 5.4.10<sup>-5</sup> to 1 m<sup>2</sup>s<sup>-1</sup>, has been compared with values published in other studies in Africa and the world.&nbsp; These identified values are plausible and have a good overall structure. The success of this modeling is strongly linked to the quantity, quality and spatial distribution of authentic informations on the parameters sought.</p> Kouamé Auguste Kouassi Francis Williams Kouassi Oi Mangoua Jules Mangoua Philippe Ackerer Gountôh Aristide Douagui Issiaka Savane ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-15 2019-11-15 708 728 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i1230152 Climate-friendly Farming Self-efficacy and Its Correlates among Secondary School Agricultural Science Students in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria http://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30153 <p>The Paper assessed self-efficacy of secondary school agricultural science towards climate-friendly farming. It specifically examined the influence that attitude towards climate-friendly farming, knowledge of climate change and ownership of household farms could have on the climate-friendly farming self-efficacy of the respondents. Correlation analysis, chi-square, percentages and composite index technique were applied to a set of primary data collected from 200 randomly sampled agricultural science students in 4 randomly selected schools in Uyo, AKS. Findings revealed that 52% of the respondents have high climate-friendly farming self-efficacy. The respondents had a positive attitudinal disposition towards climate-friendly farming. Most (48.5%) of the respondents had low knowledge of climate change. There is a need for stakeholders to translate the high climate-friendly farming self-efficacy observed among the respondents into climate-smart farming through a conscious effort at increasing their participation in practical farming activities both in school and home farms. There is a need to include climate change issues in secondary school curriculum to raise the knowledge level of the agricultural students on climate change. Students, upon the acquisition of this knowledge and skills, would help in the extension of innovative and efficient farming methods to their households and communities thereby complementing government efforts in the extension of modern and acceptable practices in farming.</p> J. T. Ekanem U. E. Okon I. Brown ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-20 2019-11-20 729 738 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i1230153 Dynamics of the Physico-chemical Properties of Sediments along the Bandama River in the Department of Niakaramadougou, Northern Côte d’Ivoire http://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30154 <p>This work focuses on analyzing of physico-chemical properties of sediment affected by frequent floods along the eastern shore of the Bandama River in the department of Niakaramadougou. Sampling was from 4 excavated graves at two positions of studied area, one near the stream and the other one far away from the stream.. Samples collected were analyzed, including texture with granulometric analysis made by the Robinson pipette, and standard sediment analysis methods for measuring organic carbon (OC), nitrogen (N), and other chemical properties including pH, organic matter (OM), and C/N ratio. Statistical analyses were carried out to assess the differences between the physico-chemical parameters at different sampling areas. Differences are significant when comparing areas that are highly affected by floods and areas that are less affected by floods, especially for concentrations of OM, OC and nitrogen. Results show that successive floods are influencing directly the dynamic of physico-chemical properties of the sediments along the shore.</p> N’Doufou Gnosseith Huberson Claver Kouadio Koffi Hypolithe De Lasm Omer Zephir Zogoury Eddie Constant Fabrice ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-25 2019-11-25 739 750 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i1230154 Green to Grey: An Urban Heat Assessment of Kumasi, Ghana http://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30155 <p>The current study assessed the city of Kumasi, Ghana to find out the extent of urban heat and the views of the populace about their climate. Both the subjective and objective approaches were utilized in the study. Secondary data from the Meteorological Survey Department in Kumasi covering temperature and relative humidity values for a 42- year period (1976 - 2018) was retrieved and used in the analysis to find the trend of urban heat phenomenon. Alongside, a developed questionnaire had a response from 2,083 people. The findings reveal among other things that there’s a 2ºC rise in mean annual temperature from 1976 to 2018. Additionally, the data shows that the past 4 years have had high mean temperature values. Subjectively, 1, 271 residence representing 61% voted in the “slightly warm-hot” range on the thermal sensation scale. Majority of the respondents across all the ages indicated how uncomfortable their outdoor spaces have become in recent times. 36% of the respondents attributed this discomfort to the lack of greenery with over 95% across all ages indicating that Kumasi city has lost its greenery and green spaces to buildings and other infrastructural activities. Whiles climate change and global warming have both become a global menace, the onus lies on individual countries and for that matter, various city authorities to make a conscious effort in planning our cities with greenery to alleviate the menace we already find ourselves. A conscious effort to retrieve and restore encroached green spaces must be undertaken by the city authorities while the parks and gardens division ought to be efficiently resourced to manage our green spaces.</p> C. Koranteng B. Simons D. Nyame-Tawiah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-26 2019-11-26 751 763 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i1230155 Rural Communities’ Perceptions of Climate Change and Its Impacts on Their Livelihood in Southeastern Niger http://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30157 <p>Climate change exacerbates ecosystem degradation in Sahel where rural communities are highly dependent on natural resources and ecosystem services for their livelihoods. In order cope with the adverse effects of climate change by developing climate adaptation strategies, there has been a need to understand how communities perceive the change or variability in their local climate and how this change could affect their livelihood. This paper aims to examined rural communities’ perceptions about climate change in the commune of Chetimari located in the region of Diffa, southeastern Niger. It investigated particularly: 1) how communities’ perceptions of climate change? 2) What are the impacts of climate change on the livelihood of communities? And 3) What do elements and options to detect abrupt change points in annual precipitations and both annual maximum and minimum temperature? Survey data were collected from October to November 2018 from 101 households (15% of the total households in the study area) in three villages. Multiple correspondence Analysis (MCA) and Factorial Correspondence Analysis (FCA) were performed with XLSTAT to analyzed data from survey. Meteorological data including Monthly precipitation from 1981 to 2017, and Monthly temperatures (maximum, minimum) from 1986 to 2017 of the Diffa meteorological station were analyzed using R to perform the Man Kendal trend test and the Pettit test for detection of abrupt changes in the series. Results showed that community perceptions on temperature increase (not for precipitation) trends as indicators of climate change are in agreement with meteorologically observed trends. The findings showed that people in this zone are aware of climate change that they see as increase in maximum and minimum temperature, decrease in rainfall, frequency of extreme events (drought and flood), dry spells, decrease in number of rainy days, strong winds etc…Results revealed the most significant impacts of climate change affecting the livelihood of rural communities in this area. These are higher risk of crop damage from drought, farmer and herder conflict frequency, drying up of wells, food shortage/insecurity, silting pools, decline in soil fertility and livestock production, silting pasture areas, frequency of livestock diseases, increased weed and invasive species, livestock mortality. The perception of the climate change and its impacts on the main socioeconomic activities vary from a village to another, according the sexes and age ranges.</p> <p>We conclude that communities are relatively aware about the climate change issue. For a better management of climate-induced risks in the study area we stress the need to improve the awareness of climate change within the rural community by improving the availability and the quality of relevant climate information.</p> I. Issaharou-Matchi H. Rabiou M. Mahamane B. Idrissa A. Mahamane M. Saadou ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-27 2019-11-27 789 800 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i1230157 The Nature of Climate Change- equivalent Climate Change Model’s Application in Decoding the Root Cause of Global Warming http://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30160 <p>Scrutiny and analysis of various energy applications show that the energy conversion to useful work or new products has been systematically inefficient. The global energy’s total effective conversion efficiency is estimated only about 20% and about 80% of the energy has been discharged into the environment. It is this energy that leads to the unbalance of the climate system’s energy budget balance and causes the global warming.</p> <p>This article presents a simple equivalent climate change model to track the past global warming and to predict the future change trend at the global scale. The model comprises of an equivalent climate change surface air boundary layer, an equivalent climate change land surface boundary layer and an equivalent climate change seawaters surface boundary layer. It produces unique definitive relationships between the temperature changes and the heat entered the air, waters and land. The model can also be used to forecast future non-renewable energy consumption needed to keep the temperature rising under Paris Accord.</p> <p>Analysis of currently available data by using this model confirms that temperature changes in air, seawaters and land closely correlate to the amount of heat discharged into the climate system from human activities. NASA and NOAA’s observations of temperature anomalies for the surface air, sea surface and land surface are well consistent with the temperature changes calculated by this model, especially the calculated results at the depth of 70 meters of the surface air boundary layer and NASA’s Lowess Smoothing trend are very close.</p> <p>Flaring intensifies global warming. Reducing use of fossil fuels, nuclear and geothermal energies, developing surface renewable energies and increasing energy’s total effective conversion efficiency and thus reducing the amount of residual/waste energy are the paths to effectively and efficiently control global warming.</p> Qinghan Bian ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-03 2019-12-03 801 822 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i1230160 Climate Change: Vulnerability of the Niger Delta Region, in Nigeria http://journalijecc.com/index.php/IJECC/article/view/30156 <p>Climate change is not just a global threat, but an unprecedented public health emergency. Climate change has been characterized by global warming, increased frequency and intensity of&nbsp;&nbsp; precipitation, catastrophic wind events, and extreme weather events, associated with heat waves, flooding disasters, and prolonged droughts. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) attributes climate change to anthropogenic or human activities.&nbsp; Globally, the most vulnerable regions, to hazardous impacts of climate change, are the mega-deltas of Africa and Asia, due to high exposure to sea level rise, storm surges, coastal erosion, and river flooding, compounded by increasing human-induced pressures on coastal areas. The vulnerability of the Niger Delta region, is exacerbated by oil spillages, gas flaring. and environmental degradation.</p> <p>This review article highlights, the urgent implementation of mitigation and adaptation as opportunities for full transformation of economies, of the Niger delta region, in line with sustainable developmental goals (SDGs).</p> Stephena Udinmade Ighedosa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-26 2019-11-26 764 788 10.9734/ijecc/2019/v9i1230156