International Journal of Environment and Climate Change <p style="text-align: justify;">A sustainable world is one in which human needs are met equitably without sacrificing the ability of future generations to meet their needs and without harm to the environment and ecosystem function and service. Meeting this formidable challenge requires a substantial effort under climate change impact, economic development and population growth. <strong>International Journal of Environment and Climate Change (ISSN:&nbsp;2581-8627)</strong> aims to publish original research articles, review articles and short communications. This is a quality controlled, double blind peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal. It has long been recognized that the long-term viability of natural capital is critical for many areas of human endeavour under climate change impact. The aims are to support engineering science research with the goal of promoting sustainable development with environmentally benign engineered systems that support human well-being and that are also compatible with sustaining natural (environmental) systems.</p> en-US (International Journal of Environment and Climate Change) (International Journal of Environment and Climate Change) Wed, 30 Oct 2019 08:32:07 +0000 OJS 60 Ecosystem-based Adaptation to Climate Change – Policy Making and Institutional Framework in Kenya’s Mt. Elgon Forest Ecosystem <p>Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) is a strategy that relies on forest landscape’s biodiversity management and restoration to enhance the sustainable production and supply of ecosystem goods and services as alternative livelihoods to cushion the society against the negative impacts of climate change. As climate change becomes a reality, adaptation measures which are cost effective and economically beneficial are urgently required. Mount Elgon ecosystem in the western region of Kenya has EbA characteristics which could offer longer term solutions to adaptation to climate change impacts while providing a range of other benefits in terms of ecosystem goods and services. This paper established the existing capacities for Ecosystem based adaptation inclusion in the sub-national adaptation plans and policies in order to improve resilience to climate change impacts in the Mt. Elgon ecosystem. To achieve this, a descriptive survey was carried involving 405 household and 51 government and civil society respondent drawn from Saboti, Kiminini, Endebess and Kwanza sub-counties, Transnzoia County in Kenya. Results showed that there were good institutional representations in Mt. Elgon ecosystem with line ministries largely being responsible (63.4%) for the management of the individual natural resources that occur in the Mt. Elgon ecosystem while a few others were either co-managed (9.7%) or managed by the County Government of Transnzoia (9.7%). Majority (77%) of household respondents observed uncoordinated approach in ecosystem management. This should be addressed in order to increase ecosystem health which eventually leads to enhanced EbA services. Majority (73.2%) of government and civil society respondents cite inter-sectoral policy inconsistencies and conflicts as contributors to degradation of ecosystem health in the study area. This too has impacted negatively on EbA. A major conclusion in the study was that consolidation and harmonization of ecosystem policies in the Mt. Elgon’s ecosystem will lead to a healthy landscape that provides sustainable EbA services.</p> Jusper Maranga Omwenga, Paul Omondi, Fatuma Daudi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 30 Oct 2019 00:00:00 +0000 A Study on Farmers Knowledge about Crop Insurance Schemes in Northern Karnataka <p>Agriculture production and farm income in India are frequently affected by natural disasters such as droughts, floods, cyclones, storms, landslides and earthquakes. In recent times, mechanisms like contract farming and future trading have been established which are expected to provide some insurance against price fluctuations directly or indirectly. But, agricultural insurance is considered as an important mechanism to address the risk of output and income effectively which is resulting from various natural and manmade events. The study was conducted in Karnataka State during the year 2017-18 by using “Ex-post- facto” research design. Belgavi, Dharwad, Haveri and Vijayapura districts were selected purposely based on more number of insured farmers. Further, two taluks from each district and from each taluk three villages (i.e. total 24 villages) were randomly selected. Sample size for the study was 240. Purposive sampling procedure was used. Descriptive statistics and multiple linear regression model were applied to analyze the data. The findings of the study revealed that, 44.17 per cent of the insured farmers belonged to low knowledge level followed by medium (37.92%) and high (17.91%) level with respect to Crop Insurance Schemes. The variable ‘credit availed’ had positive and significant relationship at one per cent level of probability. The co-efficient of determination (R<sup>2</sup>) was 0.427 which indicated that 42.70 per cent of the variation in the knowledge level of insured farmers was together explained by all the independent variables. Thus, concerned officers should conduct awareness&nbsp; programmes from time to time by using different extension teaching methods like trainings, workshops, distribution of pamphlets, road shows, advertisement through television, newspaper, radio, mobile SMS etc to enhance the knowledge level of farmers.</p> S. K. Jamanal, K. V. Natikar, S. V. Halakatti ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 07 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Mass Concentration and Size-distribution of Atmospheric Particulate Matter in Plateau State, Nigeria <p>The mass concentration and size distribution of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) was measured in three major towns in Plateau state. The CW-HAT200 PM<sub>2.5</sub>, PM<sub>10</sub> dust particle counter was used to measure the particle size in each major location within Jos, Shendam and Pankshin. The results revealed that both PM<sub>2.5</sub> and PM<sub>10</sub> concentration were high in morning hours in most of the measured locations. These values were however found decreasing in the afternoon. The higher value of PM<sub>2.5</sub> and PM<sub>10</sub> observed in the morning hours in some locations within the study area can be attributed to the high volume of motorists plying the roads during those hours. However, some locations within the study area their PM<sub>2.5</sub> and PM<sub>10</sub> were higher in the afternoon hours than morning hours. The PM sampling respirable dust sampler (AMP460NL model) was placed on the elevated platform of 1.5 m high and 20 cm away from obstacles in order to avoid any obstruction of the air from tall buildings and trees etc. Measurements were taken after 8-hours per location and the average air flow rate, sample time, initial and final mass of the filter paper were used to calculate the mass concentration of the suspended particulate matter in each locations. The mass concentration of the suspended particulate matter were higher in dry season than in the rain season for all locations. This can be attributed to the dust usually experienced during the dry season on the Plateau.</p> E. C. Hemba, E. A. Trisma, T. J. Ikyumbur ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 09 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000