Divergence Studies for Yield and Quality Traits in Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.)

M. Saikumar

Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, ANGRAU, Agricultural College, Bapatla-522101, Andhra Pradesh, India.

T. Haritha *

ANGRAU, Agricultural College Farm, Bapatla – 522101, Andhra Pradesh, India.

C. V. C. M. Reddy

Agricultural Research Station, ANGRAU, Anantapuram – 515 701, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Balaji Nayak

ANGRAU, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Undi, West Godavari, Andhra Pradesh, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Field experiment was conducted using 64 genotypes of foxtail millet to assess the genetic divergence for 24 metric traits in Kharif 2020. The ANOVA revealed existence of highly significant variation for all the traits examined. Principal component analysis identified nine principal components with eigen value more than one and 76.59% of cumulative variance. The 2D and 3D plots indicated that genotypes SiA 60, SiA 3570, SiA 3914, SiA 3222, SiA 3629, SiA 4089, SiA 3561 and SiA 2681 were divergent for yield and quality traits. Ward’s minimum variance method were grouped 64 genotypes into five clusters. The inter cluster distance between cluster I and cluster III (34.00) was maximum followed by cluster III and cluster V (31.13), therefore these genotypes from these clusters can be suggested for future crop improvement programmes.

Keywords: Foxtail millet, genetic divergence, principal component analysis, wards’ minimum variance

How to Cite

Saikumar, M., Haritha, T., Reddy, C. V. C. M., & Nayak, B. (2022). Divergence Studies for Yield and Quality Traits in Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.). International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, 12(12), 297–307. https://doi.org/10.9734/ijecc/2022/v12i121466


Download data is not yet available.


Taylor JRN, Emmambux MN. Gluten-free cereal products and beverages, gluten-free cereal products and beverages; 2008.

Reddy GV, Upadhyaya, HD, Gowda CLL. Characterization of world’s foxtail millet germplasm collections for morphological traits. International Sorghum and Millets Newsletter. 2006;47:107-109.

Li P, Brutnell TP. Setaria viridis and Setaria italica, model genetic systems for the panicoid grasses. Journal of Experimental Botany. 2011;2(9):3031-37.

Srilatha J, Haritha T, Reddy CVCM, Ramesh D. Genetic variability studies for yield and nutritional traits in foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.). Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 20209(6):596-600.

Gopalan C, Ramasastri BV, Balasubramaniam SC. Nutritive value of Indian foods. National Institute of Nutrition. Indian Council of Medical Research, Hyderabad, India; 2004.

Allard RW. Principles of plant breeding. John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York. 1960:485.

Reddy CVCM, Pullibai P, Manjunath J, Munirathnam P. Genetic diversity and genotype by trait analysis for yield and yield attributing traits in foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.). International Journal of Agriculture Innovations and Research. 2015;3(6):2319-1473.

Sapkota M, Pandey PM, Thapa, BD. Agromorphological characterization of foxtail millet (Setaria italica L. Beauv) at Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal. International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology. 2016;4(3):298-307.

Anderberg MR. Cluster analysis for application. Academic Press, New York; 1993.

Nandini C, Bhat S, Tippeswamy V, Prabhakar. Characterization of foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.) germplasm for qualitative and quantitative traits to enhance its utilization. Academia Journal of Agricultural Research. 2018;6(5):121-129.

Kumar GP, Prasad AD, Reddy CVCM. Estimation of genetic diversity by using principal component analysis in genetic resources of foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.). International Journal of Chemical Studies. 2019;7(4):1807-1811.