Effect of Copper Fungicide on Earthworm, Lampito mauritii
Issue: 2023 - Volume 13 [Issue 2]
Aliva Patnaik *
School of Life Sciences, Sambalpur University, Odisha, India.
School of Life Sciences, Sambalpur University, Odisha, India.
*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Copper such as copper oxychloride has wide use as a fungicide/bactericide which prevents infection in plants. The recommended dose of copper oxychloride for rice fields is 3 g/l which contains 50% copper i.e 1.5 g copper/l or 1500 ppm. The earthworms that play a major role in soil physical, chemical and biological improvement of soil are exposed to the copper fungicide. During the suspension culture the epi-anecic earthworm, Lampito mauritii (Kinberg) could not survive beyond 30 ppm. So, the earthworms were exposed to lethal levels of copper i.e., 0, 10, 20 and 30 ppm of copper and the effect on growth, feeding, respiration, excretion and regeneration was found to be significantly deleterious. On exposure to a sublethal dose of copper oxychloride the respiration increased but there was a marked reduction in growth, feeding, excretion and regeneration. The positive contribution of the earthworm was hampered but it continued to utilize energy from the system and this was the major finding of this work.
Keywords: Sublethal dose, copperxychloride, epi-anecic earthworm, growth, feeding, respiration, excretion
How to Cite
Morgan JE, Morgan AJ. Earthworms as biological monitors of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in metalliferous soils. Environmental Pollution. 1988;54(2):123–38.
Singleton DR, Hendrix BF, Coleman DC, Whitemann WB. Identification of uncultured bacteria tightly associated with the intestine of the earthworms Lumricus rubellus. Soil Bio. Biochem. 2003;35:1547–1555.
Edwards CA, Fletcher KE. Interaction between earthworms and microorganisms in organic matter breakdown. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 1988;20:235–249.
Schonholzer F, Hahn D, Zeyer J. Origins and fate of fungi and bacteria in the gut of Lumbricus terrestris studied by imageanalysis. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 1999;28:235–248.
Dash MC. Charle’s Darwin’s plough tools for vermitechnology. I. K, International Publishing House. Ltd; 2012.
Culy MD, Berry EC. Toxicity of soil applied granular insecticides to earthworm populations in cornfields. Down to Earth. 1995;50:20-25.
Booth LH, O’Halloran KA. Comparison of biomarker responses in the earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa to the organophosphorus insecticides diazinon and chlorpyrifos. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 2001;20(11):2494-502.
Abdul Rida AM, Bouche MB. Earthworm toxicology: From acute to chronic tests. Soil Biology and Biochemistry.1997;29:699-703.
Kula H, Larink O. Development and standardization of test methods for the prediction of sublethal effects of chemicals on earthworms. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 1997;29(3-4):635-639.
Owojori OJ, Waszak K, Roembke J. Avoidance and reproduction tests with the predatory mite hypoaspisaculeifer: Effects of different chemical substances: Avoidance and reproduction tests with hypoaspisaculeifer. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2014;33:230–237.
Panda M, Patnaik A. A study on ecotoxicity of cartap hydrochloride on “Perionyx excavatus”. Eco. Env. & Cons. 2021;27(1):274-281.
Wang Y, Cang T, Zhao X, Yu R, Chen L, Wu C, Wang Q. Comparativeacute toxicity of twenty four insecticides to earthworm, Eisenia fetida. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 2012;79:122–128.
De Silva PM, Pathiratne A, Cornelis AM, van Gestel. Toxicity of chlorpyrifos, carbofuran, mancozeb and their formulationsto the tropical earthworm Perionyx excavatus. Applied Soil Ecology. 2010;44:56-60.
Patnaik A, Behera MK. Sublethal impact of nickel on survival and soil metabolism of an anecic earthworm. International Journal of Scientific Research. 2013;2(12):106-109.
Kale RD. Earthworms and soil. Proceedings of National Academy Science India. 1997;67(B):13-24.
Dash MC, Senapati BK. Cocoon morphology, hatching and emergence pattern in tropical earthworms. Pedobiologia. 1980;20:316-324.
O.E.C.D. (Organization for economic Co-operation and Development) Earthworm, Acute toxicity text. OECD Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals. 1984;(207):194.
Swaby RJ. The influence of earthworms on soil aggregation. Journal of Soil Sci. 1950;1:195-197.
Lavelle P. The soil system in humid tropics. Bio. Int.1984;9:2-17.
Walkley A, Black IA. An examination of degtareef method for determination of organic carbon in soil: Effect of variations in digestion condition and of inorganic soil constituents. Soil Sci. 1934;63:251-263.
Remmert H. Ecology a text book. Springer – Verlag, Berlin. 1980:289.
Witkamp M. Rates of CO2 evolution from forest floor. Ecology. 1996;7:492-494.
Kaplan A. The determination of urea, ammonia and urease. In: Methods of Biochemical Analysis. Ed Glick D. John Wiley and Sons New York. 1969:311-321.
Gupta SP. Statistical methods (14th eds). Sultan Chand and Sons. New Delhi; 1980.
Thompson AR. Effects of nine insecticides on numbers and biomass of earthworm in pasture. Bull. of Env. Cont. and Toxicology.1970;5:577-586.
Khan I, Ayesha S, Sharique A. Biomass and behavioral responses of earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris to copper chloride. Iranian Journal of Toxicology. 2007;1(2):2-2.
Helling B, Reinecke SA, Reinecke AJ. Effects of the fungicide copper oxychloride on the growth and reproduction of Eisenia fetida (oligochaeta). Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 2000;46(1):108-116.
Bart S, Laurent C, Péry ARR, Mougin C, Pelosi C. Differences in sensitivity between earthworms and enchytraeids exposed to two commercial fungicides. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 2017;140:177–184.
Farrukh S, Ali AS. Effects of dichlorovos organophosphate on growth, reproduction and avoidance behavior of earthworm Eisenia foetida. Iranian Journal of Toxicology. 2011;5(14):495-501.
Ahmed ST. The impact of four pesticides on the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris (Annelida; Oligochaeta). Int. J. Cur. Res. Rev. 2013;5(21):1-5.
Travlos IS, Gkotsi T, Roussis I, Kontopoulou CK, Ioanna KakaboukI K, Bilalis DJ. Effects of the herbicides benfluralin, metribuzin and propyzamide on the survival and weight of earthworms (Octodrilus complanatus). Plant Soil Environ. 2017;63(3):117–124.
Treder K, Jastrzebska M, Kostrzewska MK, Makowski P. Do long-term continuous cropping and pesticides affect earthworm communities? Agronomy. 2020;10:586
Zhang J, Liang W, Wu X, Jiang S, Li Q. Toxic eﬀects of acetochlor on mortality, reproduction and growth of caenorhabditiselegans and Pristionchuspaciﬁcus. Bull. Environ. Contam.Toxicol. 2013;90 :364–368.
Kreutzweiser DP, Good KP, Chartrand DT, Scarr TA, Thompson DG. Are leaves that fall from imidacloprid-treated maple trees to control asianlonghorned beetles toxic to non-target decomposer organisms? J. Environ. Qual. 2008;37:639–646.
Khalil AM. Ecotoxicological bioassays of the earthworms Allolobophora caliginosa Savigny and Pheretima hawayana Rosa treated with arsenate. On Line Journal of Biological Sciences. 2013;13(3):99-105.
Capowiez Y, Berard A. Assessment of the effects of imidacloprid on the behavior of two earthworm species (Aporrectodea nocturna and Allolobophora icterica) using 2D terraria. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 2006;64:198–206.
Gomez-Eyles JL, et al.. Measuring and modeling mixture toxicity of imidacloprid and thiacloprid on Caenorhabditis elegans and Eisenia fetida. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 2009;72:71–79.
Luo Y, Zang Y, Zhong Y, Kong Z. Toxicological study of two novel pesticides on earthworm Eisenia fetida. Chemosphere. 1999;39:2347–2356.
Tisdall JM, Oades JM. Organic matter and water-stable aggregates in soils. Europian Journal of Soil Science. 1982;33(2):141–163.
Gunstone T, Cornelisse T, Klein K., Dubey A, Donley N. Pesticides and soil invertebrates: A hazard assessment. Frontiers in Environmental Science. 2021;9. Article 643847
Zhou Y, Liua X, Wang J. Ecotoxicological effects of microplastics and cadmium on the earthworm Eisenia foetida. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2020;392:122273.
Ding W, Li Z, Qi R, Jones D, Liu Q, Liu Qin, Yan C. Effect thresholds for the earthworm Eisenia fetida: Toxicity comparison between conventional and biodegradable microplastics. Science of the Total Environment. 2021;781(8): 146884.
Cui W, Gao P, Zhang M, Wang L, Sun H, Liu C. Adverse effects of microplastics on earthworms: A critical review. Science of the Total Environment. 2022;850(6): 158041.
Guild WJMCL. Earthworms and soil structure. In Soil Zoology. Ed Kevan DK, Mc Butterworths E, London. 1955:83–98.
Arthur DR. Form and function in the interpretation of feeding in Lumbricid worms. View Points Bio. 1965;4:204-251.
Meyer L. Experimenteller Beitr‰ge zu makrobiologischen wirkungen auf humus and boden bildung, arch. Pflanzenerahrung Dungung Bodenkunde. 1943;29:119-140.
Keogh RG, Whitehead PH. Observations on some effects of pasture spraying with benomyl and carbendazim on earthworm activity and litter removal from pasture. New Zealand Journal of Experimental Agriculture. 1975;3:(1):103-104.
Wright MA. Effect of benomyl and some other systematic fungicide on earthworms. Ann. Appl. Biol. 1977;87:520-524.
Dittbrenner N, Triebskorn R, Moser I, Capowiez Y. Physiological and behavioural effects of imidacloprid on two ecologically relevant earthworm species (Lumbricus terrestris and Aporrectodea caliginosa). Ecotoxicology. 2010;19:1567–1573.
Capowiez Y, et al. Earthworm cast production as a new behavioural biomarker for toxicity testing. Environ. Pollut. 2010; 158:388–393.
Larink O, Sommers R. Influence of coated seeds on soil organisms tested with bait lamina June 2002 European Journal of Soil Biology. 2002;38(3-4):287-290
Burrows LA, Edwards CA. The use of integrated soil microcosms to predict effects of pesticides on soil ecosystems. European Journal of Soil Biology. 2002;38(3-4):245–249.
Nunes MET, Espindola ELG. Sensitivity of Eisenia andrei (annelida, oligochaeta) to a commercial formulation of abamectin in avoidance testswith artificial substrate and natural soil under tropical conditions. Ecotoxicology. 2012;21(4):1063–1071.
Wang JH, Zhu LS, Liu W, Wang J, Xie H. Biochemical responses of earthworm (Eisenia foetida) to the pesticides chlorpyrifos and fenvalerate. Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods. 2012;22(3): 236–241.
Lundergarh H. Carbon dioxide evolution of soil and crop growth. Soil Sci. 1927;23:417-453.
Senapati BK, Dash MC. Energetics of earthworms population in tropical pastures from India. Proc. Indian Acad. Sciences (Anim. Sci.). 1983;92:315-322.
Bolton PJ. The use of an infrared gas analyser for studies on the resoiratory metabolism of Lumbricidae. In Methods of Study in Soil Ecology. Ed Phillipson J. UNESCO, Paris, 1970:269-273.
Calow P. Physiological costs of combating chemical toxicants: Ecotoxicolog-ical implications. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology and Pharmacology. 1991;100(1-2):3–6.
Johnstona ASA, Hodsonb ME, Thorbekc P, Alvarezd T, Sibly RM. An energy budget agent-based model of earthworm populations andits application to study the effects of pesticides. Ecological Modelling. 2014;280:5–17.
Blagodatsky S, Smith P. Soil physics meets soil biology: Towards better mechanistic prediction of greenhouse gas emissions from soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 2012;47:78-92.
Lubbers IM, et al. Reduced greenhouse gas mitigation potential of no-tillage soils through earthworm activity. Scientific Reports. 2015;5:13787.
Marigoudar SR, Ahmed RN, David M. Cypermethrin induced respiratory and behavioural responses of the freshwater teleost, Labeo rohita (hamilton). Veterinarski Arhiv. 2009;79(6):583-590.
Maboeta MS, Reinecke SA, Reinecke AJ. The relationship between lysoso-mal biomarker and organismal responses in an acute toxicity test with Eisenia fetida (oligochaeta) exposed to the fungicide copper oxychloride. Environmental Research. 2004;96:95–101.
Laverack MS. The physiology of earthworms. New York, USA: Pergamon Press, Ltd; 1963.
Senapati BK, Biswal J, Pani SC, Sahu SK. Ecotoxicological effects of malathion on earthworms. Soil Biol. Biochem. (U.K.). 1992;24(12):1719-1722.
Patnaik A, Senapati BK. Impact of copper fungicide on the survivility, growth and regeneration of an anecic earthworm. Ecol. Env. & Cons. 1996;2:109-113.