Biological Control of Groundnut Stem Rot and Collar Rot Pathogens under in vitro Conditions

V. Divya Rani *

Department of Plant Pathology, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Hyderabad, Telangana (500030), India.

Hari Sudini

International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru, Telengana (502324), India.

P. Narayan Reddy

Anurag Agricultural University, Venkatapur, Ghatkesar Rd, Hyderabad, Telangana (500088), India.

G. Uma Devi

Department of Plant Pathology, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Hyderabad, Telangana (500030), India.

K. Sadaiah

Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Hyderabad, Telangana (500030), India.

K. Vijay Krishna Kumar

Department of Plant Pathology, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Hyderabad, Telangana (500030), India and Department of Plant Pathology, Acharya N G Ranga Agricultural University, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh (522034), India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


The experiment was conducted under laboratory conditions by using native isolates. These were tested against stem rot (S. rolfsii) and collar rot (A. niger) pathogens of groundnut under in vitro conditions by using dual culture technique. The fungal and bacterial bioagents which are inhibitory against these pathogens were identified by 18S rRNA (fungi) and 16S rRNA (bacteria) techniques and were compared with those from the GenBank using the BLAST program. Among fungal isolates T. harzianum (MBNRT-1) was superior in inhibition of S. rolfsii and A. niger and the per cent inhibitions were 70.5% in case S. rolfsii whereas; in A. niger the inhibition was 72.9 per cent. Among native bacterial isolates the isolate B. amyloliquifaciens (MBNRB-3) and is significantly superior over the other isolates in inhibiting the pathogens S. rolfsii and A. niger under in vitro conditions and the inhibitions were 66.6 per cent and 63.0 per cent respectively. Further, compatibility of effective fungal and bacterial bioagents T. harzianum (MBNRT-1) and B. amyloliquifaciens (MBNRB-3) with six fungicides and eight herbicides indicated that among the fungicides the azoxystrobin was highly compatible with both the bioagents T. harzianum (MBNRT-1) and B. amyloliquifaciens (MBNRB-3) whereas, among the herbicides imazethapyr + imazamox was found to be compatible with both the bioagents with all the concentrations. While, tebuconazole, thiram, mancozeb+carbendazim (fungicides) and quizolofop-p-ethyl and pendimethalin (herbicides) were highly inhibitory to the T. harzianum (MBNRT-1) and B. amyloliquifaciens (MBNRB-3) under in vitro conditions.

Keywords: Biological control, groundnut, stem rot, collar rot, compatibility, fungicides, herbicides

How to Cite

Rani, V. D., Sudini, H., Reddy, P. N., Devi, G. U., Sadaiah, K., & Kumar, K. V. K. (2023). Biological Control of Groundnut Stem Rot and Collar Rot Pathogens under in vitro Conditions. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, 13(5), 254–268.


Download data is not yet available.


Chet I. Biological control of soilborne pathogens with fungal antagonists in combination with soil treatments. In Hornby, D, Cook, R.J, Henis, Y, Ko, W.H, Rovira, A.D. Schippers, B & Scott, P.R. (Eds.). Biological Control of Soil-borne Pathogens. New York:CAB Publishing House. 1990;15-25.

Cortes C, Gutierrez A, Olmedo V, Inbar J, Chet I, Herrera Estrella A. The expression of genes involved in parasitism by Trichoderma harzianum is triggered by a diffusible factor. Mol. Gen. Genet. 1998;260: 218-225.

Weindling R. Studies on lethal principle effective in the parasitic action of Trichoderma lignorum on Rhizoctonia solani and other soil fungi. Phytopath. 1934;24:1153-1179.

Papavizas GC. Trichoderma and Gliocladium:Biology, ecology and potential for biocontrol. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 1985;23:23-54.

Chet I. Trichoderma-application, mode of action and potential as biocontrol agent of soil borne plant pathogenic fungi: Innovative approaches to plant disease control. Chet, I. 2nd ed. John Wiley and Sons, New York. 1987;137-160.

Howell CR. Relevance of mycoparasitism in the biological control of Rhizoctonia solani by Gliocladium virens. J Phytopathol. 1987;77:992-994.

Kumar, KVK, Reddy MS, Kloepper JW, Lawrence KS, Groth DE, Miller ME. Sheath blight disease of rice (Oryza sativa L.) - An overview. Biosci. Biotechnol. Res. Asia. 2009;6(2):465-480.

Kubicek CP, Mach RL, Peterbauer CK, Lorito M. Trichoderma:From genes to biocontrol. J. Plant Pathol. 2001;83:11-23.

Podile AR, Kishore GK. Biological control of peanut diseases. In Gnanamanickam, S.S. (Eds.). Biological control of crop diseases. New York, Marcel Dekker Inc. 2002;131-160.

Gupta VK, Sharma K. Integration of chemicals and biocontrol agents for managing white rot of apple. Acta Hortic. 2004;635:141-149.

Veena SS, Anandraj M, Sharma YR. Compatibility of potassium phosphonate with Trichoderma harzianum. Indian J. Mycol. Pl. Pathol. 2006;36(2):171-174.

Korsten L, Lonsdale JH, De Villiers E, De Jager ES. Preharvest biological control of mango diseases. S.A. Mango Growers’Association. Yearbook. 1992;12: 72–74.

Silimela M, Korsten L. Alternative methods for preventing pre and post-harvest diseases and sunburn on mango fruits. S.A. Mango Growers’ Association Yearbook. 2001;21:39–43.

Jhonson LF, Curl EA. Methods for the research on ecology of soil borne plant pathogens. Burgess Publishing Co, Minneapolis; 1972.

Dennis C, Webster J. Antagonistic properties of species groups of Trichoderma III hyphal interactions. Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc. 1971;57:363-369.

Alschul SF, Gish W, Miller W, Ew M, Lipman, DJ. Basic local alignment search tool. J of Mol Bio. 1990;215:403-410.

Thompson JD, Gibsom TJ, Plewniak F, Jeanmougin F, Higgins DG. The clustal X windows interface:flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucleic Acids Res. 1997;24:4876-4882.

Saitou N, Nei M. The neighbour-joining method:a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol. Biol. Evol. 1987;4:406-425.

Tamura K, Stecher G, Peterson D, Filipski A, Kumar S. MEGA 6: Molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 6.0. Mol. Biol. Evol. 2013;30(12):2725-2729.

Nene YL, Thapliyal PN. Fungicides in Plant Disease Control.Oxford and IBH Publishing House, New Delhi. 1993;163.

Deacon JW. Biocontrol of soil borne plant pathogens with introduced bacteria;In:Wood R.K.S. Way, M.J. (eds.). Biological control of pests, pathogens and weeds: Development and prospects. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. London, B. 1988;318:357- 373.

Hornby D. Biological control of soil borne plant pathogens. Walling Ford, Oxon:CAB International; 1990.

Sarhan MM, Ezzat SM, Tohamy MRA. Application of Trichoderma hamatum as a biocontrol against tomato wilts disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp lycopersici. Egypt J Med Microbiol. 1999;34:347-376.

Elad Y, Chet I, Boyle P, Hennis Y. Parasitism of Trichoderma spp, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii scanning electron microscopy fluorescent microscopy. J Phytopathol. 1983; 73:85-88.

Mukhopadhyay AN. Biological control of soil borne plant pathogens by Trichoderma spp. Indian J Mycol Plant Pathol. 1987;17:1-10.

Iqbal SM, Bakhsh A, Hussain S, Malik BA. Microbial antagonism against Sclerotium rolfsii the cause of collar rot of lentil. Lens Newsletters. 1995;22:44-49.

Rekha D, Patil MB, Shridhar Shetty P, Swamy KM, Rajini B. Gamanagatti. Invitro screening of native Trichoderma isolates against Sclerotium rolfsii causing collar rot of ground nut. Int J Sci Nat. 2012;3(1):117-120.

Devi M, Prasad RD. Biointensive management of collar rot of groundnut caused by Aspergillus niger. J. Biol Control. 2009;23(1):21-24.

Gajera H, Rakholiya K, Dinesh V. Bioefficacy of Trichoderma isolates against Aspergillus niger van Tieghem inciting collar rot in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). J. Plant Prot. Res. 2011;51 (3):240-247.

Nandeesha BS, Kumar MR, Reddy NPE. Evaluation of different fungicides and their compatibility with potential Trichoderma spp. For the management of Aspergillus niger incitant of collar rot of groundnut. Asian J. Biol. Sci. 2013;2(1):59-63.

Siala, A, Gray TR. Growth of Bacillus subtilis and spore germination in soil observed by a fluorescent- antibody technique. J. Genet. Mol. Biol. 1974;81: 191-198.

Utkhede RS. Antagonism of isolates of Bacillus subtilis to Phytophthora cactorum. Canadian Journal of Botany. 1984;62: 1032-1035.

Prabakaran G, Ravimycin T. Screening of Bacillus isolates against Aspergillus niger causing collar rot of groundnut. Int. J. Plant Prot. 2012;5(1):11-115.

Podile AR, Prakash AP. Lysis and biological control of Aspergillus niger by Bacillus subtilis AF 1. Can. J. Microbiol. 1996;42(6):533–538.

Duijff BJ, Meijer JW, Bakker PAHM, Schippers B. Siderophore-mediated competition for iron and induced resistance in the suppression of fusarial wilt of carnation by fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. Neth. J. Plant Pathol. 1993;99:277-289.

Rangeshwaran R, Prasad RD. Biological control of Sclerotium rots of Sunflower. Indian Phytopathol. 2000;53(4):444 - 449.

Lin HC, Huang WD, Yang SS, Tzeng DS, Growth promotion and Reduced Sclerotium rolfsii seedling blight of rice by Bacillus subtilis WG6-14. Plant Pathol. Bulletin. 2008;17:53-64.

Kishore GK, Pande S, Podile AR Biological control of collar rot disease with broad spectrum antifungal bacteria associated with groundnut. Can. J. Microbiol. 2005;51:123–132.

Csinos S, Bell DK, Minton NA, Wells HD. Evaluation of Trichoderma spp, fungicides, and chemical combinations for control of southern stem rot on peanuts. Peanut Sci. 1983;10:75-79.

Basha ST, Radhaiah A, Devamma MN, Reddy NPE. Biocontrol potential of indigenous Pseudomonas spp. against Sclerotium rolfsii causing stem rot of groundnut. Int. j. food agric. vet. sci. 2010;2(1):134 -141.

Mc Lean KL, Hunt J, Stewart A, Zydenbos SM. Compatibility of the biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum C-52 with selected fungicides. Newzealand Plant Protection 54. Proceedings of a conference quality hotel, Palmerston North, Newzealand 14-16, August. 2001; 84-88.

Brenneman TB, Murphy AD, Csinos AS. Activity of tebuconazole on Sclerotium rolfsii and Rhizoctonia solani two soilborne pathogens of peanut. Plant Dis. 1991;75:744-747.

Pandey KK, Pandey PK, Mishra KK. Bio-efficacy of fungicides against different fungal bioagents for tolerance level and fungistatic behavour. Indian Phytopathol. 2006;59(1):68-71.

Bagwan NB. Evaluation of Trichoderma compatibility with fungicides, pesticides, organic cakes and botanicals for integrated management of soil borne diseases of soybean [Glycine max (L.)Merril]. Int J of Plant Protec. 2010;3 (2):206-209.

Tapwal A, Kumar R, Gautham N, Pandey S. Compatibility of Trichoderma viride for selected fungicides and botanicals. Int. J. Plant Pathol. 2012;6 (2):89-94.

Ranganathswamy M, Patibanda AK, Chandrashekhar GS, Sandeep D, Mallesh SB, Halesh Kumar HB Compatibility of Trichoderma isolates with selected fungicides in vitro. Int. J. Plant Prot. 2012;5(1):12-15.

Sarkar S, Narayanan P, Divakaran A, Balamurugan A, Premkumar R. The in vitro effect of certain fungicides, insecticides, and biopesticides on mycelial growth in the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum. Turkish Journal of Biology. 2010;34:399-403.

Akgul DS, Ozgonen H, Erkilic A. The effects of seed treatments with fungicides on stem rot caused by Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc in peanut. Pak. J of Bot. 2011; 43(6):2991-2996.

Mondal G, Srivastava KD, Agarwal R. Antagonistic effect of Trichoderma spp on Ustilago segetum var. tritici and their compatibility with fungicides and biocodes. Indian Phytopathol. 1995;48:466-470.

Sharma DD, Gupta VP, Chandrasekhar DS. Compatibility of certain biocontrol agents with chemical pesticides and fertilizers. Indian J. Seric. 1999;38:79-82.

Madhavi GB, Bhattiprolu SL, Reddy VB. Compatibility of bioagent Trichoderma viride with various pesticides. J. Hortic. Sci. 2011;6(1):71-72.

Devi PA, Prakasam V. Compatibility nature of azoxystrobin 25 SC with Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis on chilli Plants. World J. Agric. Res. 2013;1(8): 258-264.

Prasad JS, Reddy RS, Reddy PN, Harikrishna P. Isolation, characterization and screening of Bacillus spp. for plant growth promoting attributes and antagonistic activity against Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii and compatibility with commonly used pesticides. Pollut. Res. 2014;33(2):373-377.

Kumar KVK, Reddy MS, Kloepper JW, Yellareddygari SK, Lawrence KS, Zhou XG, et al. Plant growth-promoting activities of Bacillus subtilis MBI 600 (integral®) and its compatibility with commonly used fungicides in rice sheath blight management. Int. J. Microbiol. Res. 2011; 3(2):120-130.

Katan J, Eshel Y. Interactions between herbicides and plant pathogens. Residue Rev. 1973;45:145-147.