COP27 Making a Case for a Net Zero-Carbon Emissions Future by Implementing Technological Solutions and Mindset Transformation

Ammar Ewis *

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland-A1B 3X5, Canada.

Rasha El-Shafie

Faculty of Sustainable Design Engineering, University of Prince Edwards, Island, PEI, Canada.

Mahmoud Sakr

Academy of Scientific Research and Technology, Cairo, Egypt.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Carbon emissions pose a massive risk to our planet's health. According to the Paris Climate Agreement, nations pledged to limit global warming to 1.5°C to mitigate climate change's impacts. This target will not be achieved without immediate and deep emissions reductions across all sectors. Unfortunately, the Russian-Ukrainian conflict and the new natural gas discoveries in some countries have also slowed down the pace of decarbonization. Aside from that, a faint light at the end of the tunnel could be seen from the new Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report, which pointed to increasing actions on climate change. Fortunately, achieving future zero carbon emission is still possible via the implementation of holistic frameworks that promote existing and emerging green technologies and helps the community to transform. This policy paper proposes a framework that integrates technology use and mobilizes the transformation of communities' mindsets to cope and adapt to climate change. The proposed framework will then be implemented in the country hosting the 27th Conference of the Parties of the UNFCCC (COP 27), Egypt, and it is recommended to be used by scholars and policymakers for future assessment of the country's climate change performance. Finally, the paper provides a set of recommendations to governments, policymakers, and communities to accelerate the movements toward a net zero-carbon future.

Keywords: Net zero emissions, mindset transformation, energy policy, innovative solutions

How to Cite

Ewis, A., El-Shafie, R., & Sakr, M. (2023). COP27 Making a Case for a Net Zero-Carbon Emissions Future by Implementing Technological Solutions and Mindset Transformation. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, 13(5), 376–391.


Download data is not yet available.


United Nations. Paris agreement COP21. United Nations; 2015.

World B. emissions (metric tons per capita) | Data. Data:CO2.

Center for Climate and Energy Solutions. Global emissions. Center for Climate and Energy Solutions. Center for Climate and Energy Solutions; 2018, January 4. Available:

Gross S. Renewables, land use, and local opposition in The United States. Foreign Policy. 2020.

IRENA. Geothermal energy; 2017. Available:

Miller L, Keith D. Corrigendum: observation-based solar and wind power capacity. Enviromental Res Lett. 2019; 14(1).

Ashby M, Attwood J. Materials for low-carbon power. Granta Design; 2011.

Duan X. Introduction to Energy Storage review notes. Memorial University of Newfoundland; 2021.

Edge JS, O’Kane S, Prosser R, Kirkaldy ND, Patel AN, Hales A et al. Lithium ion battery degradation: what you need to know. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2021;23(14):8200-21.

Al-Shetwi AQ, Hannan MA, Jern KP, Mansur M, Mahlia TMI. Grid-connected renewable energy sources: review of the recent integration requirements and control methods. J Cleaner Prod. 2020; 253(1).

Das P, Mathuria P, Bhakar R, Mathur J, Kanudia A, Singh A. Flexibility requirement for large-scale renewable energy integration in Indian power system: Technology, policy and modeling options. Energy Strategy Rev. 2020;29.

White L. Microgrid components and operation. NC State University; 2019.

US office of energy effeciency and renewable energy; 2019. Hydrogen production processes.


National Research Council, National Academy of Engineering. The Hydrogen Economy opportunities, costs, barriers and R&D needs. National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering; 2004.

Gravitricity. Gravitricity adds hydrogen to energy storage mix; 2021, May 19.


Borri E, Tafone A, Zsembinszki G, Comodi G, Romagnoli A, Cabeza LF. Recent trends on liquid air energy storage: A bibliometric analysis. Appl Sci. 2020;10(8).

Blakers A, Stocks M, Lu B, Cheng C. A review of pumped hydro energy storage. Prog Energy. 2021;3(2).

Quident energy; 2019, March 5. 6 top storage startups Out of 200 in the energy industry. StartUps Insights.

Available: https://www.startus-insights. com/innovators-guide/6-top-storage-startups-out-of-200-in-energy/

European Union agency for the cooperation of energy regulators. Transporting Pure hydrogen by Repurposing Existing Gas Infrastructure: Overview of existing studies and reflections on theconditions for repurposing. ACER Press; 2021.

Christopher K, Dimitrios R. A review on exergy comparison of hydrogen production methods from renewable energy sources. Energy Environ Sci. 2012;5(5):6640-51.

Verfondern K. Safety considerations on liquid hydrogen. Jülich Forschungszentrum GmBH; 2008.

Renews Ltd. Highview Power developing 2-GWh Spanish storage project. ReNEWS – renewable. Energy News.

Available:; 2021, May 19.

Cryo Energy. CRYO energy technology creates a world of clean sustainable affordable energy products. Cryoenergy; Cryo Energy; 2021.Available:

Buysse C, Miller J. Transport could burn up the EU’s entire carbon budget. International Council on Clean Transportation; 2021, April 9. Available:

Milovanoff A, Posen ID, MacLean HL. Electrification of light-duty vehicle fleet alone will not meet mitigation targets. Nat Clim Change. 2020;10(12):1102-7.

Zhang N, Yu K, Chen Z. How does urbanization affect carbon dioxide emissions? A cross-country panel data analysis. Energy Policy. 2017;107:678-87.

Berkes F, Jolly D. Adapting to climate change: social-ecological resilience in a Canadian western Arctic community. Conserv Ecol. 2002;5(2).

Adger N, Huq S, Hulme M, Brown K, Conway D. Adaptation to climate change in the developing world. Prog Dev Stud. 2016;3(3):179-95.

Sarker NI, Hossin MA, Wu M, Alam M, Shafi M, Pervez K et al. Determinants and pattern of urbanization and counter-urbanization: the case of South Asia. J Soc Sci Research. 2018;4(12):802-12.

Halfacree K. To revitalise counterurbanisation research? Recognising an international and fuller picture. Popul Space Place. 2008;14(6): 479-95.

McGee JA, York R. Asymmetric relationship of urbanization and CO2 emissions in less developed countries. Plos One. 2018;13(12): e0208388.

Wang X, Hui EC, Sun J. Population migration, urbanization and housing prices: evidence from the cities in China. Habitat Int. 2017;66:49-56.

Zhang R, Fujimori S. The role of transport electrification in global climate change mitigation scenarios. Environ Res Lett. 2020;15(3):034019.

Buckle C, Osbaldiston N. Editorial introduction: counter-urbanisation in contemporary Australia: A review of current issues and events. Aust Geogr. 2022;53(4):347-62.

United Nations. Transforming Egypt’s energy market. United Nations; 2022.

United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division. World urbanization prospects: the 2018 revision (ST/ESA/SER. United Nations. 2019;A/420.

DeWaters J, Powers S. Establishing measurement criteria for an energy literacy questionnaire. J Environ Educ. 2013;44(1): 38-55.

Anderson A 2010. Combating climate change through quality education. Brookings global Economy and development.

United Nations General Assembly. Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. United Nations; 2015.

Anderson A. Climate change education for mitigation and adaptation. J Educ Sustain Dev. 2012;6(2):191-206.

Vaughter P 2016. Climate change education: from critical thinking to critical action, Policy Brief. United Nations university, Institute for Advanced Study of sustainability.

Ledley T, Varga J, Niepold F. Addressing climate change through education. Oxford research Encyclopedia of Environmental Science; 2017.

Komendantova N. Transferring awareness into action: A meta-analysis of the behavioral drivers of energy transitions in Germany, Austria, Finland, Morocco, Jordan and Iran. Energy Res Soc Sci. 2021;71:(101826).

De La Peña L, Guo R, Cao X, Ni X, Zhang W. Accelerating the energy transition to achieve carbon neutrality. Resour Conserv Recy. 2022;177:(105957).

Deng M, Leippold M, Wagner A, Wang Q. The Russia-Ukraine war and climate policy expectations: Evidence from the stock market; 2022.

Hussein A, El Baz M 2019. Egypt’s natural gas: Bright prospects. GYPT oil & gas newspaper.

E&MC. Egypt authorizes the production of green hydrogen by large energy groups; 2022, April 17. Quemadores Industriales-Gas-Gasoil-Biomasa-Calderas; E&M Combustion.


H2-View. View. Vol. H2; 2022, May 18. Rystad Energy Anticipate Green Hydrogen Boom in Egypt.

Available: story/ rystad-energy-anticipate-green-hydrogen-boom-in-egypt/.

Earth overshoot Day; 2022. Egyptian smart grid – power of possibility. Earth Overshoot Day.


International US, Trade Administration. Guide: electricity and renewable energy. Egypt: Country Commercial. US International Trade Administration; 2022.

Shouman ER, Khattab NM. Future economic of concentrating solar power (CSP) for electricity generation in Egypt. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2015;41: 1119-27.

Alham M, Gad M, Ibrahim D. Potential of wind energy and economic assessment in Egypt considering optimal hub height by equilibrium optimizer. Ain Shams Eng J; 2022.

Salah SI, Eltaweel M, Abeykoon C. Towards a sustainable energy future for Egypt: A systematic review of renewable energy sources, technologies, challenges, and recommendations. Cleaner Eng Technol. 2022;8.

Hegazy I, Seddik W, Ibrahim H. Towards green cities in developing countries: Egyptian new cities as a case study. Int J Low Carbon Technol. 2017;12(4): 358-68.

Hegazy M. Egypt transport policies 2014-2021. Arab reform initiative; 2022.

Available: publication/egypt-transport-policies-14-21/.

El-Garhy AM. Implementation of a nationwide smart system for roads in Egypt. The Egyptian cabinet information and decision support center; 2021.

Egyptian National Railways; 2022. Available:

Frangoul A. Egypt set for world’s sixth largest high-speed rail system with backing from Germany’s Siemens; 2022, May 30. CNBC. Available:

EgyptToday. Siemens to implement 2nd, 3rd lines of Egypt’s first high speed train: ministry. Egypt Today; 2022.


Makary M. All you need to know about the World’s longest monorail system | Egyptian streets; 2022, January 27. Egyptian Streets. Available:

Orascom construction. Egypt’s monorail. Orascom Construction; 2022. Available:

Ahram Online; 2022, July 2. Explainer: what you need to know about Egypt’s first LRT system to link new capital in July – Urban & Transport – Egypt. Ahram Online. Available:

Egypt independent. Egypt announces start for establishing first 10 BRT system stations. Egypt Independent; 2022. Available:

Egypt Today. Egypt completes 60% of plan targeting to double natural gas stations. Egypt Today; 2022.


Emam A. Egypt to Promote Electric Vehicle Deployment – Sada El balad, July 13. Sada el Balad; 2022.


Kadry A. Egyptian government pushes bike project to reduce traffic, pollution ahead of COP27 – Al-Monitor: Independent, trusted coverage of the Middle East; 2022, July 5.

Available: originals/2022/07/egyptian-government-pushes-bike-project-reduce-traffic-pollution.

Egypt Today. Egypt’s green initiative: 14 reasons why afforestation helps counter climate change. Egypt Today; 2022. Available:

IRENA. Majority of new renewables undercut cheapest fossil fuel on cost; 2021, June 22.

Available: Available:

Li HX, Edwards DJ, Hosseini MR, Costin GP. A review on renewable energy transition in Australia: An updated depiction. J Cleaner Prod. 2020;242: (118475).

Moussa RR. Reducing carbon emissions in Egyptian roads through improving the streets quality. Environ Dev Sustain; 2022.