Evaluating the Effectiveness of Low Impact Development Practices against Climate Induced Extreme Floods

Amrit Babu Ghimire

School of Civil, Environmental and Infrastructure Engineering, Southern Illinois University, 1230 Lincoln Drive, Carbondale, IL 62901-6603, USA.

Mandip Banjara

School of Civil, Environmental and Infrastructure Engineering, Southern Illinois University, 1230 Lincoln Drive, Carbondale, IL 62901-6603, USA.

Amrit Bhusal

Arcadis U.S., Inc. 7575 Huntington Park Dr. Suite 130, Columbus, OH 43235, USA.

Ajay Kalra *

School of Civil, Environmental and Infrastructure Engineering, Southern Illinois University, 1230 Lincoln Drive, Carbondale, IL 62901-6603, USA.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Short but extreme flooding events have been frequent and severe globally due to climate change and urbanization in recent years. Similarly, researchers, scientists, and water managers are suggesting the application of sustainable flood management strategies such as Low Impact Development (LID) to mitigate the impacts of such extreme flooding events. However, most of these strategies have primarily been evaluated using historical precipitation events, which may not accurately represent the impact of climate-induced flooding events, which are projected to become more extreme. In this context, this study assesses the effectiveness of LIDs in combating climate change-induced flooding events. The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) climate model was applied in this study to quantify the magnitude of future projected storm depths, which are expected to increase due to climate change. Similarly, Personal Computer Storm Water Management Model (PCSWMM) was used to develop a rainfall-runoff simulation model and to assess the effectiveness of three LID techniques (Permeable Pavement, Green Roof, and Bio-Retention Cell) in reducing surface runoff under various climate scenarios. The results revealed that under the climate change scenarios the future projected design depths are expected to increase by up to 104%.  Similarly, peak discharge, and total flooding volume were found to increase by 37.72% and 88.73%, respectively under the most extreme climate change scenario. Furthermore, the study demonstrated that applying LID strategies decreases peak discharge, offering a viable solution to tackle flooding events induced by climate change. The results illustrated the performance of permeable pavement was superior in reducing the peak discharge by up to 28.57%. Similarly, applying green roofs and bioretention cells reduced the peak discharge by up to 19.93% and 14.25%, respectively.

Keywords: Floods, extreme event, urbanization, low impact development, climate change


How to Cite

Ghimire, Amrit Babu, Mandip Banjara, Amrit Bhusal, and Ajay Kalra. 2023. “Evaluating the Effectiveness of Low Impact Development Practices Against Climate Induced Extreme Floods”. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change 13 (8):288-303. https://doi.org/10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i81953.

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