Unravelling the Genetic Enigma: Exploring the Molecular Basis of Heterosis

Mayur Pansare

Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab - 144402, India.

Puneet Walia *

Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab - 144402, India.

Kulbhushan Patil

Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab - 144402, India.

Shubham Gopera

Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab - 144402, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Heterosis, the phenomenon where hybrid offspring exhibit superior traits compared to their inbred parents, has captivated scientists for decades due to its immense potential for crop improvement. Unravelling the molecular basis of heterosis has remained a challenge, but recent advancements in genomic and molecular techniques have shed new light on this intriguing phenomenon. This review paper provides a comprehensive overview of the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying heterosis. We delve into the intricate interplay of genetic factors and regulatory networks that contribute to the manifestation of heterosis. Genomic studies have revealed structural variations, such as rearrangements and copy number variations, which may play a crucial role in hybrid vigour. Furthermore, we explore the dynamic nature of gene expression patterns during hybridization, highlighting the activation of novel gene networks and the modulation of epigenetic mechanisms. Transcriptomic analyses have identified key genes and pathways associated with heterosis, shedding light on the intricate molecular interactions that drive the superior performance of hybrids. Additionally, we discuss the emerging role of small RNAs, transcription factors, and regulatory elements in orchestrating heterosis. These molecular players act as conductors in the genetic symphony of hybrid vigour, fine-tuning gene expression and facilitating the coordinated functioning of diverse biological processes. Understanding the molecular basis of heterosis holds immense promise for crop improvement and sustainable agriculture. By leveraging this knowledge, breeders can harness the full potential of hybrid breeding to develop high-yielding and resilient crop varieties. This review aims to inspire further research and collaboration in unravelling the mysteries of heterosis, paving the way for innovative strategies to enhance global food security and agricultural productivity.

Keywords: Crop improvement, heterosis, hybrid vigour, hybrid breeding, resilient crop, transcription


How to Cite

Pansare , Mayur, Puneet Walia, Kulbhushan Patil, and Shubham Gopera. 2023. “Unravelling the Genetic Enigma: Exploring the Molecular Basis of Heterosis”. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change 13 (9):228-37. https://doi.org/10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i92227.

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