Farmers’ Perception towards Climate and Millet Producer Organizations

Sangappa *

ICAR-IIMR, Hyderabad, India.

D. Rafi

ICAR-IIMR, Hyderabad, India.

Laxmi B.

College of Forestry, Ponnampet, India.

Charishma E.

ICAR-IIMR, Hyderabad, India.

Itigi Prabhakar

UHS Bagalkot, Bengaluru, India.

Arun Kumar P.

COA, Iruvakki, KSNUAHS, India.

Sujeet K. Jha

Division of Agricultural Extension, ICAR HQ, KAB-1, New Delhi, India.

Tara Satyavathi C.

ICAR-IIMR, Hyderabad, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Aims: Majority of the farmers in India are small and marginal (nearly 88.6%) & facing issues in getting timely inputs (seed, fertilizer, pesticide and farm implements), credit access, market linkages, & existence of intermediaries reduced the producers share in consumer rupee. Farmers as collectives viz., FPOs/Co-operatives/FPC helps small, marginal and tenant farmers in  enhancing their production, marketing, income, bargaining power, and provides benefits through joint action by eliminating the intermediaries. FPOs boost farmers income by establishing businesses among farming communities, brings industry and agriculture together that develops rural areas.

Study Design:  Random sampling.

Place and Duration of Study: Karnataka, January 2023.

Methodology: Four millet FPOs promoted by ICAR-IIMR from Northern Karnataka were taken for the study. Data regarding perception of millet farmers towards FPOs was collected by using well framed interview schedule from 120 farmers which were selected randomly. The data                     pertaining to study was collected during 2022-23 and basic statistical tools like descriptive             statistics, percentage analysis, factor analysis were employed for analyzing the perception levels of farmers.

Results:  Majority of the millet farmers in the study area were medium aged with family size of four to six members. The average land holding capacity of farmers was 7.85 acres and are customized with organic farming of cultivation. It was noticed that majority of the millet FPO famers have medium level of perception towards general (80 %) and service activities (68.3 %) of FPOs and have higher level (73.3 %) of perception towards extension activities of FPOs. Lack of effective market linkages, Timely availability of agri-inputs and lack of coordination among FPO members were major constraints faced by millet FPO members.

Conclusion: Establishment of Millet farm gate processing units at FPOs, CHCs, linking small holders to market through FPOs, value addition of millets, e-marketing, organizing trainings on aspects of second agriculture programs will make FPOs sustain in long run and thereby strengthen millet value chain. Collective efforts of Millet FPOs can contribute in building climate-resilient agricultural systems and support sustainable livelihoods for millet farmers.

Keywords: Small & marginal farmer, market linkages, millet FPOS, secondary agriculture, extension activities

How to Cite

Sangappa, Rafi , D., B. , L., E. , C., Prabhakar , I., Kumar P. , A., Jha , S. K., & C. , T. S. (2023). Farmers’ Perception towards Climate and Millet Producer Organizations. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, 13(9), 2754–2761.


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