Agro-Forestry – A Crop Diversification Strategy for Adaption and Mitigation of Climate Change

T. G. Amrutha

College of Sericulture, Chintamani-563125, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, India.

K. S. Shubhashree

College of Sericulture, Chintamani-563125, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, India.

H. D. Shilpa *

UAHS, Shivamogga-577201, India.

G. V. Venkataravana Nayaka

College of Sericulture, Chintamani-563125, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, India.

Karale Gangadhar Yamaji

College of Sericulture, Chintamani-563125, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, India.

C. N. Nalina

College of Sericulture, Chintamani-563125, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


The biggest challenge the world is currently experiencing is the impact of climate change on agriculture. Developing nations like India will be particularly affected because of their growing populations, water shortages, declining soil fertility, and loss of biodiversity. Agroforestry system is a major component in sustainable agricultural production under climate change situation as inclusion of agroforestry system ensures the production of food, fuel, fodder, timber, manures and fibre even under adverse climatic situations. The issue of ecologically sound and commercially viable strategies for adaptation and mitigation of climate change is being addressed by agroforestry, which is intensive, integrated, intentional, and interactive. This is done through carbon sequestration, biodiversity conservation, microclimate improvement, and a decrease in greenhouse gas emissions. Modern, effective agroforestry techniques enable farm activity diversification and improved stewardship of the environment. There are three ways that agroforestry helps to mitigate climate change. Sequestering carbon in biomass and soils, lowering greenhouse gas emissions, and reducing energy consumption on farms to minimize emissions are all ways to reduce emissions. This review highlights successful adoption of agroforestry as an crop diversification option for mitigating climate change effects.

Keywords: Agroforestry, climate change, farm productivity, environment, mitigation, GHG, carbon sequestration, livelihood, carbon sink

How to Cite

Amrutha , T. G., K. S. Shubhashree, H. D. Shilpa, G. V. Venkataravana Nayaka, Karale Gangadhar Yamaji, and C. N. Nalina. 2023. “Agro-Forestry – A Crop Diversification Strategy for Adaption and Mitigation of Climate Change”. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change 13 (10):865-73.


Download data is not yet available.


Schlamadinger, Bernhard. Carbon forestry. Proceedings of workshop on carbon sequestration and sustainable livelihood, Centre for International Forestry Research. 2005;Chapter :03:26-41.

IPCC. The physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Inter governmental Panel on Climate Change. 2007;996.

Meragiaw, Misganaw. Role of Agroforestry and Plantation on Climate Change Mitigation and Carbon Sequestration in Ethiopia. J. of Tree Sci. 2017;36(1):1-15.

Nair, Ramachandran PK. An introduction to agroforestry. Springer Science & Business Media; 1993.

Jose, Shibu. Agroforestry for ecosystem services and environmental benefits: an overview. Agroforestry systems. Climate change mitigation. 2009;76(1):1-10.

Bishaw, Badege, Abdu abdelkadir. Agroforestry and community forestry for rehabilitation of degraded watersheds on the Ethiopian highlands. International Symposium on Contemporary Development Issues in Ethiopia; 2003.

IPCC. Special Report on Climate Change, Desertification, Land Degradation, Sustainable Land Management, Food Security and Greenhouse gas fluxes in Terrestrial Ecosystems. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2019;812.

Tamale E, Jones N, Riddihough IP. Technologies related to participatory forestry in tropical and sub-tropical countries. World bank Technical Papers. 1995;299.

Nair PKR. Advances in Agroforestry. Agroforestry-The future of global land Use Climate change mitigation: A low-hanging fruit of agroforestry. Springer Nature Publisher, Dordrecht, Switzerland. 2012; 9:31-67.

Schoeneberger M, Bendrub G, Gooijer H, Soolanayakanahal R, Tom sauer, Brandle J, Zhan X, Den cuer. Branching out: agroforestry as a climate change mitigation and adaptation for agriculture. J. of Soil and Water Conserv. 2012;67(5): 128-136.

UNFCCC. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, The United Nations Climate Change Conference, COP19 or CMP9 was held in Warsaw, Poland; 2013.

Lin BB. Agroforestry adaptation and mitigation options for smallholder farmers vulnerable to climate change. CSIRO Climate Adaptation Flagship, PMB 1 Aspendale VIC (3195) Australia; 2011.

Buchman N. Agroforestry for carbon sequestration to improve small farmers livelihoods, From the North South Centre Research for development. J. of Plant Development Sci. 2008;6(4):577-581.

Kaushal R, Tewari SK, Banik RL, Chaturvedi S. Growth, Biomass Production and Soil properties under different bamboo Species. In: ISTS-IUFRO Conference on Sustainable Resource Management for Climate Change mitigation and social security at Chandigarh, India; 2014.

Prasad JVNS, Srinivas K, Rao CS, Ramesh C, Venkatravamma K, Venkateswarlu B, Biomass productivity and carbon stocks of farm forestry and agroforestry systems of leucaena and eucalyptus in Andhra Pradesh, India. Current Sci. 2012;103(5):536-540.

Swamy SL, Puri S. Biomass production and C-sequestration of Gmelina arborea in plantation and agroforestry system in India. Agrofor. Syst. 2005;64(3):181-195.

Chauhan SK, Sharma SC, Chauhan R, Gupta N, Srivastava R. Accounting poplar and wheat productivity for carbon sequestration in agrisilviculture system. Indian Forester. 2010;136(9):1174-1182.

Ramnewaj, Dhyani SK. Agroforestry for carbon sequestration: Scope and present status. Indian J. Agrofestry. 2008;10:1-9.

Montagnini F, Nair PKR. Carbon sequestration: An under exploited environmental benefit of agroforestry systems. Agrofor. Syst. 2004;61:281-295.

Mutuo PK, Cadisch G, Albrecht palm CA, Verchot L. Potential of agroforestry for carbon sequestration and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from soils in the tropics. Nutr. Cycl. 2005;71:43-54.

Newaj R, Dhyani SK. Agroforestry for carbon sequestration: Scope and present status. Ind. J. of Agrofor. 2008;10:1-9.

Sangram chavan, Ram newaj, Keerthika A, Asha ram, Ankur J, Anil kumar. Agro-forestry for Adaptation and Mitigation of Climate Change. Pop. Kheti. 2014;2(3): 214-219.

Goswami S, Verma KS, Kaushal R. Biomass and carbon sequestration in different agroforestry systems of a Western Himalayan watershed. Biol. Agric. Hortic. 2014;196-204.

Singh P, Lodhiyal LS. Biomass and carbon allocation in 8-year-old poplar (Populus deltoides Marsh) plantation in Tarai agroforestry systems of central Himalaya, India. New York Sci. J. 2009;2:49–53.

Dhyani SK, Puri DN, Narain P. Biomass production and rooting behaviour of Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. on deep soils and riverbed bouldery lands of Doon Valley, India. Indian Forester. 1996;122(2): 128–136.

Kaur B, Gupta SR, Singh G, Carbon storage and nitrogen cycling in silvi-pastoral systems on a sodic soil in northwestern India. Agrofor. Syst. 2002; 54:21-29.

Mittal SP, Singh P. Intercropping field crops between rows of Leucaena leucocephala under rainfed conditions in Northern India. Agrofor Syst. 1989;8(2): 165-172.

Negi JDS, Bahuguna VK, Sharma DC. Biomass production and distribution of nutrients in two years old teak (Tectona grandis) and gamar (Gmelina arborea) plantation in Tripura. Indian Forester. 1990;116(9):681-686.

Negi MS, Tandon VN, Rawat HS. Biomass and nutrient distribution in young teak (Tectona grandis) plantaion in Tarai Region of Uttar Pradesh. Indian Forester. 1995;121(6):455-463.

Rai AK, Solanki KR, Raip. Performance of Anogeissus pendula genotypes under Agri-silvi-culture system. Indian J. of Agroforestry. 2002;4(1):71-77.

Rao MR, Ong CK, Pathak P, Sharma MM. Productivity of annual cropping and agroforestry systems on a shallow Alfisol in semi-arid India. Agrofor. Syst. 1991; 15:51-63.

Viswanath S, Peddappaiah RS, Subramoniam V, Manivachakam P, George M. Management of Casuarina equisetifolia in wide-row intercropping systems for enhanced productivity. Indian J. Agroforestry. 2001;6(2):19-25.

Saha S, Nair PKR, Nair VD, Kumar BM. Soil carbon stocks in relation to plant diversity of home gardens in Kerala, India. Agrofor. Syst. 2009;76:53-65.

Oelbermann M, Voroney RP, Gordon AM. Carbon sequestration in tropical and temperate agroforestry systems: a review with examples from Costa Rica and southern Canada Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment. 2004;104:359-377.

Murthy IK, Gupta M, Tomar S, Munsi M, Tiwari R, Hegde GT, Ravindranath NH. Carbon Sequestration Potential of Agroforestry Systems in India. J. Earth Sci. Climate Change. 2013;4(1):2-7.

Pandey DN. Multifunctional agroforestry systems in India. Current Science. 2007; 92:455-463.

Verchot LV, Noordwijk MV, Kandji S, Tomich T, Ong C. Climate change: linking adaptation and mitigation through agroforestry. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change. 2007;12: 901-918.

FAO. Realizing the economic benefits of agroforestry: experiences, lessons and challenges. State of the World’s Forests. 2005;85-99.

Makundi WR, Sathaye JA. GHG mitigation potential and cost in tropical forestry-relative role for agroforestry. Environment, Development and Sustainability. 2004;6: 235-260.

Puri S, Nair PKR. Agroforestry research for development in India: 25 years of experiences of a national program. Agroforestry Systems. 2004;61:437-452.

Ravindranath NH. Mitigations and adaptation synergy in forest sector. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change. 2007;12:843-853.

NRCAF, National Research Centre for Agroforestry. Vision-2025: NRCAF Perspective Plan Jhansi, report, India; 2007.