Integrative Molecular Approaches to Plant Disease: A Review

Prashanth Kumar A. *

JVR Horticultural Research Station, Malyal, SKLTSHU, India.

Nikhil B. S. K.

JVR Horticultural Research Station, Malyal, SKLTSHU, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Modern molecular and bioinformatics technologies have made understanding host-pathogen interactions easier. Plants have many ways to protect themselves from microbial diseases, such as physical barriers, PAMP detection, and R genes that recognize pathogen-effector proteins and turn on effector-triggered immunity. Plant pathogen genome databases provide genomic and phenotypic data on plant pathogen species and information on plant-pathogen interactions. Map-based or positional gene cloning is improving our understanding of plant-pathogen interactions, with R genes being used to develop resistance to pathogens. Plant genomes typically contain several hundred nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeats (NLRs), with their number, arrangement, and domain combinations varying by species. Bacterial blight (BB) severely impacts rice production, and about 37 of 44 resistance genes have been mapped and 15 cloned. Many disease-resistant wheat cultivars have been developed using powdery mildew leaf rust (Lr) resistance genes from wild relatives of T. aestivum. Over 140 genes are linked to powdery mildew resistance in T. aestivum and MutChromSeq have found new target genes. Cloning Arabidopsis resistance genes is essential for developing resistant cultivars and understanding R gene evolution. Some R genes encode proteins with nucleotide-binding site (NBS) motifs, and an LRR protects against Erysiphe cruciferarum powdery mildew. CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing is a major tool in plant genome editing, efficiently introducing target site mutations and improving plant immunity. High-throughput sequencing can identify and clone candidate resistance genes in different plant species, and gene editing technologies like CRISPR/Cas have illuminated site-specific mutagenesis and durable resistance.

Keywords: Defense, database, pathogen, resistance genes and clone

How to Cite

Prashanth Kumar A., & Nikhil B. S. K. (2023). Integrative Molecular Approaches to Plant Disease: A Review. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, 13(10), 2803–2812.


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