Recent Advances in Ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi L.) Cultivation: A Review

Asangi H.

ICAR-Indian Institute of Spices Research, Regional Station, Karnataka, 571201, India.

Ravi Y. *

ICAR-National Research Centre on Seed Spices, Ajmer, Rajasthan, 305206, India.

Ashoka N.

COH, Sirsi, University of Horticultural Sciences, Bagalkote, Karnataka, 581402, India.

Kavan Kumar V.

Department of Renewable Energy Engineering, CTAE, MPUAT, Udaipur, 313001, India.

Harisha C. B.

ICAR-National Institute of Abiotic Stress Management, Baramati, Maharashtra, 413115, India.

Arvind K. Verma

ICAR-National Research Centre on Seed Spices, Ajmer, Rajasthan, 305206, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi L.), also known as carom seed, belongs to the family Apiaceae, a native from Egypt. It is a popular seed spice crop in India. It is an annual herbaceous plant bearing small egg shaped greyish brown fruits. Seeds contain medicinal values, especially for curing indigestion, stomach pain, and elements concerning the digestive system. Thymol (30-35%), γ-terpinene (23.92%), and p-cymene (22.9%) are the major constituents present in the seeds. The essential oil extracted from Ajwain seeds is being used in minor quantities in perfumery, food flavouring as preservatives, and most extensively in folk medicines, especially for remedies of stomach disorders. Dry and hot fruit fermentation is externally applied on the chest to cure asthma, and a crushed fruit paste is applied for colic pains. Evaluation and characterization of seed spices germplasm is required for their documentation and cataloging crop wise for further use by plant breeders and biotechnologists to improve yields, quality, and resistance against biotic as well as biotic stresses. There is an urgent need to enhance the productivity and quality of the crop by adopting suitable agronomic practices such as population densities per hectare and the nutritional status of the soil. Major research is needed on pesticide residue management to earn better foreign exchange. Recent available advanced research and development have been described in this article.

Keywords: Ajwain, medicinal value, management, technologies, productivity, quality


How to Cite

Asangi H., Ravi Y., Ashoka N., Kavan Kumar V., Harisha C. B., and Arvind K. Verma. 2023. “Recent Advances in Ajwain (Trachyspermum Ammi L.) Cultivation: A Review”. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change 13 (10):2929-38. https://doi.org/10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102959.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Zarshenas MM, Moein, M, Samani, SM. Petramfar P. An overview on ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi) pharmacological effects; modern and traditional. Journal of natural Remedies. 2014;14(1):98- 105.

Anonymous. Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (1999-2011). Government of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Department of Ayush. Part 1. 2011;1:170–171.

Meena M, Rialch I, Kumar A, Dubey RB, Bharti B, Dodiya NS. Stability analysis for seed yield and yield component traits in ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi L.). Electronic Journal of Plant Breeding. 2019;10(3):1194-1199.

Ravi Y, Narayanpur VB, Gangadharappa PM, Hiremath JS, Shantappa T, Prashant A, Doddamani MB. Performance evaluation of ginger genotypes on their yield and nutrient uptake under the coastal Karnataka, India. International Journal of Bio-resource and Stress Management. 2022;13(6):630-637.

Shahrajabian MH, Sun W, Cheng Q. Pharmaceutical benefits and multidimensional uses of ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi L.). Pharmacognosy Communications. 2021; 11(2):138-141.

Soltani Howyzeh M, Sadat Noori SA, Shariati JV, Niazian M. Essential oil chemotype of iranian ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi L.). Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants. 2018;21(1): 273-2767.

Ravi Y, Suryakant KV, Sudharani N, Gokavi N, Sunilkumar MK, Akshay, KR. Importance of medicinal plants in the treatment of central nervous system disorders-A review. Research in Environment and Life Sciences. 2015; 9(2): 140-142.

Hanif MA, Hassan SM, Mughal SS, Rehman A, Hassan SK, Ibrahim A, Hassan H. An overview on ajwain (Trachyspermum Ammi) pharmacological effects: current and conventional. Pharmaceutical Science and Technology. 2021;5(1):1-6.

Raeisi S, Sharifi-Rad M, Quek SY, Shabanpour B, Sharifi-Rad J. Evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of shallot (Allium ascalonicum L.) fruit and ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi L. Sprague) seed extracts in semi-fried coated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets for shelf-life extension. LWT-Food Science and Technology. 2016;65:112-121.

Rajeshwari CU, Vinay Kumar AV, Andallu B. Therapeutic potential of Ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi L.) seeds. In Nuts and seeds in health and disease prevention. London, England: Academic Press.2011;153–159.

Chahal KK, Dhaiwal K, Kumar A, Kataria D, Singla N. Chemical composition of Trachyspermum ammi L. and its biological properties: A review. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2017;6(3):131-140.

Rajeshwari CU., Kumar AV, Andallu B. Therapeutic Potential of Ajwain (Tracyspermum ammi L.) Seeds. In Nuts and seeds in health and disease prevention. Academic Press. 2011;153-159.

Morsy NF. Production of thymol rich extracts from ajwain (Carum copticum L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) using supercritical CO2. Industrial Crops and Products. 2020;145:112072

Ivanovic J, Knauer S, Fanovich A, Milovanovic S, Stamenic M, Jaeger P, Zizovic I, Eggers R. Supercritical CO2 sorption kinetics and thymol impregnation of PCL and PCL-HA. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids. 2016;107:486- 498.

Anonymous. National Horticulture Board database. Govt. of India; 2020.

Available:https://www.nhb.gov.in/StatisticsViewer.aspx?enc=MWoUJibk35dW2g36TUJWAoZqESmAYFi7h2irlsmjlINTcFl1rG/kLbq8ZQbWUvuM

Anwer MM, Kakani RK, Khan MA. India’s response to world demand of seed spices. International Journal of Seed Spices. 2011;1(1):1-7.

Malhotra SK.. Development strategies for spices production in India. Indian Journal of Arecanut, Spices and Medicinal Plants. 2014;16(2):13.

Dashora LK. Advances in production technology of ajwain. A course manual for winter school on Advances in Seed Spices Production at NRCSS, Ajmer, 2005;22: 172-174.

Pruthi JS. Spices and Condiments. 4th ed. New Delhi: National Book Trust. 1992.

Krishnamoorthy V, Madalageri MB. Bishop weed (Trachyspermum ammi): An essential crop for north Karnataka. Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Science. 1999;21(4):996-998.

Joy PP, Thomas J, Mathew S, Jose G, Joseph J, Aromatic plants. In: Bose TK, Kabir J, Das P, Joy PP, editors. Tropical Horticulture. Vol. 2. Calcutta: Naya Prokash. 2001;633 - 733.

Annual report. National Research Centre on Seed Spices, Ajmer, Rajasthan, India. 2016-2017.

Lal G. Scenario, importance and prospects of seed spices: A review. Current Investigations in Agriculture and Current Research. 2018;4(2):491-498.

Ravindra babu Y, Prajapati DB, Patel KP. Characterization and evaluation of indigenous Ajwain (Trachyspemum ammi) germplasms under North Gujarat condition. International Journal of Seed Spices. 2012;2(1):59-62.

Meena RL, Meena SS, Mehta RS, Meena RD. Weed management in ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi L.). Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops. 2015;24(20): 124-128.

Sharangi AB, Datta S, Prahlad D. Spices-Agrotechniques for quality produce. Innovations in horticultural Science. Apple Academic Press; 2018.

Meena SS, Kakani RK, Singh B, Meena RS, Mehta RS, Kant K, Sharma YK, Meena RD. AA 93: an early maturing variety of ajwain developed at NRCSS for all ajwain growing areas. International Journal of Seed Spices. 2014;4(2):91-93.

Tripathi SM. Azad Ajwain-1: A new high yielding disease resistant variety. Asian Journal of Horticulture. 2010;5(1):197-198.

Pinnacle of Progress. Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur, Rajasthan. 2012;07.

Nath P, Jaiswal RC, Verma RB, Yadav GC. Effect of date of sowing, nitrogen levels and spacing on growth and yield of ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi L.). Journal of Spices Aromatic Crops. 2008;17(1):1-4.

Mehta RS, Meena SS, Vishal MK. Yield and economic feasibility of ajwain (Trichispermi ammi L.) production under varying irrigation interval, nutrient levels and crop geometry. Agricultural Science Digest-A Research Journal. 2013;33(1):56-59.

Mahala A, Uddin A, Kumari S. Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi) Seed Powder on Serum Biochemical Parameters of Pratapdhan Chicken. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change. 2023;13(2):12-19.

Annual report. National Research Centre on Seed Spices, Ajmer, Rajasthan, India; 2013-2014.

Muvel R, Naruka IS, Chundawat RS, Shaktawat RP, Rathore SS, Verma KS. Production, productivity and quality of ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi L. Sprague) as affected by plant geometry and fertilizer levels. International Journal of Seed Spices. 2015;5(2):32-37.

Verma L, Singh S, Dogra P, Yadav M, Kumar V. Effect of Different Liquid Biofertilizers and Varying Fertility Levels on Available N, P2O5, K2O and S Content after Harvesting in Soil. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change. 2023; 13(3):109–114.

Asangi H, Kattimani KN, Siddappa R, Harisha CB. Performance of ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi L.) varieties at varying nitrogen levels under semi-arid tropics of Northern Karnataka. Current Horticulture. 2023;11(2):53-57.

Vahidipour TH, Vahidipour HR, Baradaran R, Seqhatoleslami MJ. Effect of Irrigation and nitrogen fertilizer on grain yield and essential al oil percentage of medicinal plant ajwain. International Journal of Agronomy and Plant Production. 2013; 4(5):1013-1022.

Kulkarni S. Influence of organics on productivity and economics of ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi) cultivation under Melia dubia based agroforestry system. Medicinal Plants. 2021;13(4):638-643.

Premnath JRC, Verma RB, Yadav GC. Effect of date of sowing, nitrogen levels and spacing on growth and yield of Ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi L. Sprague). Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops. 2008;17(1):1-4.

Dastane NG. A practical manual for water use research in agriculture. Navabharat Prakashan Publications, Poona (India). 1967;5-6.

Mehta RS, Meena SS, Vishal MK. Yield and economic feasibility of Ajwain (Trichispermi ammi) production under varying irrigation interval, nutrient levels and crop geometry. Agricultural Science Digest. 2013;33(1):56-59.

Wahab E, Mohamed A. Effect of nitrogen and magnesium fertilization on the production of Trachyspermum ammi L. plants under Sinai conditions. Journal of Applied Sciences Research. 2007; 3(8):781-86.

Raghuwanshi M, Jha AK, Verma B, Yadav PS, Shrivastava A. Weed Dynamics of Fodder Maize as Influenced by Different Herbicides. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change. 2023; 13(7):245–251.

Annual report. National Research Centre on Seed Spices, Ajmer, Rajasthan, India; 2016-2017.

Meena SS, Solanki RK, Kakani RK, Kumari S. Genetic variability studies in ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi L.). Journal of Spices and Aromatic Crops. 2015;24(2):119-123.

Nalini N, Srinivas A, Ramprakash T, Praveen V. Weed dynamics, growth, yield and economics of ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi) influenced by integrated weed management. Agriculture Update. 2017;12(5):1375-1380.

Meena RP, Ram M, Sharma RN. Weed Management in Ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi L.) at Farmer’s Fields in South East Rajasthan. International Journal of Bio-resource and Stress Management. 2023;14(2):285-290.

Mirhashemi SM, Kouchaki AR, Parsa M, Nasiri MM. Evaluating the benefit of ajwain and fenugreek intercropping in different levels of manures and planting pattern. Iranian Journal of Field crops Research. 2009;7(1):271-281.

Innovative technologies in seed spices for commercialization ICAR-National Research Centre on Seed Spices, Tabiji-305 206, Ajmer, Rajasthan.

Khare MN, Tiwari SP, Sharma YK. Disease problems in cultivation of celery (Apium graveolens L.), ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi L), dill (Anethum graveolens L), nigella (Nigella sativa L), anise (Pimpenella anisum L.) and their management. International Journal of Seed Spices. 2015;5(1): 34-36.

Samad A, Panda S, Mahesh K, Gupta PV, Ajayakumar A, Shukla K. Molecular identification of a phytoplasma associated with Ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi) in India. European Journal of Plant Pathology. 2011;130:1-4.