Study on Arboreal Floristic Diversity, Phytosociology and Conservation Strategy of Endangered Species in Chandi Beat of Majathal Wildlife Sanctuary, Himachal Pradesh, Western Himalaya

Krishna Kumari *

Pandit Deendayal College of Horticulture and Forestry, Piprakothi, East Champaran, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University, Pusa, Bihar, 845429, India.

R. K. Verma

ICFRE- Himalayan Forest Research Institute, Panthaghati, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, 173213, India.

Ranjeet Kumar

ICFRE- Himalayan Forest Research Institute, Panthaghati, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, 173213, India.

Ashish Thakur

ICFRE- Himalayan Forest Research Institute, Panthaghati, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, 173213, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Himachal Pradesh, a land of snow-abode mountains is significant for its natural wealth and unique habitat, flora, and fauna. Majathal Wildlife Sanctuary, the site of the present study was located in Solan and Shimla districts (Wildlife Division, Shimla) of Himachal Pradesh spread over an area of 37.71 sq km. Phytosociological studies for arboreal flora were conducted in the Chandi beat, of the sanctuary by using the quadrate method and quantitative analysis. The altitude of this beat varied from 625m to 1960m amsl. Total number of plant species recorded in the study area was 155, belonging to 46 families and 97 genera. The dominant families included Fabaceae, Moraceae, Asteraceae, Malvaceae, Lamiaceae, and Rosaceae. Pinus roxburghii recorded the highest value of IVI and is the most dominant tree species in the forest followed by Quercus leucotrichophora. Results revealed that the range of Concentration of dominance (C) 0.04-0.06, Index of Diversity (H) 2.55-3.58, Richness index (R) 3.47-7.78 and Evenness Index (E) 0.84-0.93 was for trees and range of Concentration of dominance (C) 0.03-0.04, Index of Diversity (H) 3.37-3.86, Richness index (R) 6.22-6.12 and Evenness Index (E) 0.91-0.93 for shrubs at different elevation in Chandi beat. There were three woody plant species found as threatened category plant according to CAMP, 2013 i.e., Pleurolobus gangeticus, Oroxylum indicum and Zanthoxylum armatum which require conservation efforts suggested except Zanthoxylum armatum which has shown a good population in nature. Phytosocial and floristic diversity study on woody plants was not done before in this sanctuary so it will provide baseline information on the biodiversity status of the woody vegetation of the sanctuary and encourage conservation efforts, sustainable utilization of resources, and bio-perspective. 

Keywords: Biodiversity, conservation, density, floristic, frequency, threatened


How to Cite

Kumari , K., Verma , R. K., Kumar, R., & Thakur , A. (2023). Study on Arboreal Floristic Diversity, Phytosociology and Conservation Strategy of Endangered Species in Chandi Beat of Majathal Wildlife Sanctuary, Himachal Pradesh, Western Himalaya. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, 13(10), 3263–3280. https://doi.org/10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i102994

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Indian State Forest Report, 2021. Forest Survey of India (Ministry of Environment Forest and Climate Change) Kaulagarh road, P.O. IPE Dehradun – 248195, Uttarakhand. India.

ENVIS, National Wildlife Database Centre, Wildlife Institute of India, 2023. Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change. Available:www.wiienvis.nic.in/database/Protected_Areas_854aspx

Kala CP. Plant community composition and species diversity in the alpine meadows of Uttaranchal Himalayas. Indian Forester. 2006;132(2):156-164.

Kumar R, Verma RK, Kumar S, Thakur C, Prakash R, Kumari K, Dushyant and Yadav S. Diversity of herbs in Kibber Wildlife Sanctuary of Distt. Lahaul and Spiti, Himachal Pradesh. Biological Forum – An International Journal. 2020a;12(2): 01-12.

Singh SK and Rawat GS. Flora of Great Himalayan National Park, Himachal Pradesh. Dehradun: Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh; 2000.

Kumari K, & Verma RK. Traditionally Important Herbaceous Medicinal Plants of Majathal Wildlife Sanctuary, District Solan, Himachal Pradesh, North Western Himalaya, India. Journal of Plant Resources. 2022;20(2):165-179.

Kumar R, Verma RK, Kumari K, Kumar V, Gulshan KR. Impact of controlled burning on herbs in high altitude zone of chirpine forests in solan and nahan circles, Himachal Pradesh. International Journal of Bio-resource and Stress Management. 2020b;11(4):414-424.

Singh DK, Hajra PK. Plants of Indian Himalayan Region: An Annotated Checklist & Pictorial Guide. Botanical Survey of India; 1996.

Samant SS, Pant S, Singh M, Lal M, Singh A, Sharma A, Bhandari S. Medicinal Plants in Himachal Pradesh, north western Himalaya, India. Int J Biodiver Sci Manag/ 2007;234-251.

ENVIS, National Wildlife Database Centre, Wildlife Institute of India, Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change; 2023. Available:www.wiienvis.nic.in/database/Protected_Areas_854aspx

Kumar R, Verma RK, Kumari K, Kumar V, Prakash R. Impact of Burning in Winter on Diversity of Ground Flora after Monsoon Period in Mid Altitude Chirpine Zone of Nahan Circle of Himachal Pradesh. Int. J. Adv. Res. Biol. Sci. 2020c;7(11):1-11.

Odum EP. Fundamentals of Ecology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 1971.

Lebrun J. Application of phytosociology to land management. Vegetation. 1977;35(2): 123-130.

Brown LR, Du Preez PJ, Bezuidenhout H, Bredenkamp GJ, Mostert H TC, Collins NB. Guidelines for phytosociological classifications and descriptions of vegetation in southern Africa. Koedoe. 2013;55(1):1˗10.

Dansereau P. The origin and growth of plants in living systems, New York: Basic Books Inc. 1960;567-603.

Chapin FS, Zavaleta ES, Eviner VT, Naylor RL, Vitousek PM, Reynolds HL. Consequences of changing biodiversity. Nature. 2000;405:234˗242.

Chytry M, Schaminee HJ, Schwabe A. Vegetation survey: A new focus for applied vegetetation science. Applied Vegetation Science. 2011;14:435-439.

Jyoti, Samant SS, Tewari LM, Paul S, Singh A, Bala K and Thakur P. Structural Diversity, Distribution Pattern and Regeneration of Forest communities in Shivalik Hills, Himachal Pradesh, NorthWestern Himalaya. Biological Forum – An International Journal. 2023;15(5a): 264-281.

Anonymous, Shimla Wildlife Division, Himachal Pradesh Forest Department; 2023.

Available:https://shimlawldivision.in/

Kanjilal UN. Forest Flora of the Chakrata, Dehradun and Saharnpur Forest Divisions, Uttar Pradesh. 3rd ed. Delhi: Manager of publications, Government of India Press; 1928.

Chowdhery HJ, Wadhwa BM. Flora of Himachal Pradesh, vols. 1–3. Calcutta: Botanical Survey of India; 1984.

Dhaliwal DS, Sharma M. Flora of Kullu District (Himachal Pradesh), Dehradun: Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh; 1999.

Curtis JT, McIntosh RP. The interrelations of certain analytic and synthetic phytosociological characters. Ecology. 1950;31:434-455.

Singh JS. Influence of biotic disturbance and interspecific association of the common forbs in the grassland at Varanasi, India. Tropical Ecology, 1969;10: 59-71.

Misra R. Ecology workbook, New Delhi: Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. 1968;244.

Curtis JT, Cottam G. Plant Ecology Work Book: Laboratory Field Reference Manual. Burgess Publishing Co., Minnesota; 1956.

Shannon CE, Wiener W. The Mathematical Theory of Communication. Univ. of Illinois Press. Urbana, U.S.A.; 1963.

Simpson E. H., Measurement of diversity. Nature. 1949;163:688.

Margalef R. Temporal succession and spatial heterogeneity in phyto-plankton.In: A. A. Buzzati-Traverso. (Ed.). Perspective in Marine Biology. University of California Press, Berkeley; 1958.

Hill MO. Diversity and its evenness, a unifying notation and its consequences. Ecology. 1973;54:427-432.

Goraya GS, Jishtu V, Rawat GS, Ved DK, Wild Medicinal Plants of Himachal Pradesh: As Assessment of their conservation status and management prioritization (CAMP). Himachal Pradesh Forest Department, Shimla; 2013.

Joshi HC Arya SC, Somant SS. Diversity, distribution and indigenous uses of plant species in Pindari areas of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve-II. Indian Journal of Forestry. 2000;24(4):514-516.

Kunhikannan C, Verma R. K, Ilokar VM, Totey NG. Plant diversity in and around Tadoba lake, Maharashtra. India Journal of Tropical Biodiversity. 1994;2(1&2):327-330.

Verma RK, Kapoor KS, Rawat RS, Subramani SP, Kumar S. Analysis of plant diversity in degraded and plantation forests in Kunihar Forest Division of Himachal Pradesh. Indian Journal of Forestry. 2005a;28(1):11-16.

Verma RK, Subramani SP, Kapoor KS, Kumar S. Status of plant diversity around Renuka Lake in Renuka Wildlife Sanctuary, Himachal Pradesh. Environment & Ecology. 2005b;23(1):158-163.

Khushwah RBS, Kumar V. Status of flora in protected areas: The case studies of Satpura, Bandhavgarh, Indravati and Madhav National Park of Madhya Pradesh, India. Indian Forester. 2000;126(1):71-77.

Verma RK, Subramani SP, Kapoor KS, Kumar S. Plant species diversity along an altitudinal gradient in Simbalwara wildlife sanctuary, Himachal Pradesh. Indian Journal of Forestry. 2009;32(2):195-209.

Uniyal P, Pokhriyal P, Dasgupta S, Bhatt D, Todaria NP. Plant diversity in two forest types along the disturbance gradient in Dewalgarh watershed, Garhwal Himalaya. Current Science. 2010;98(7):938-943.

Thakur K, Puri S, Verma J. Assessment of species diversity along different altitudinal gradients in Bandli wildlife sanctuary district Mandi, Himachal Pradesh. Int. J. Innovative Res. Advance studies. 2016; 3(7):56-59.

Devi K, Samant SS, Puri S, Paul S, Dutt S. Diversity, distribution pattern and indigenous uses of medicinal plants in Kanawar Wildlife Sanctuary of Himachal Pradesh, North Western Himalaya, India. Journal of Conservation Biology. 2019; 117:172-219.

Jhamta R, Puri R, Sharma ML, Kaur H, Khan S. Traditional knowledge and ways of consumption of wild edible plants by rural communities of Shimla District, Himachal Pradesh (India). Plant Science Today. 2019;6(2):201-207.

Singh SK. Vegetation structure under north and south aspects in temperate zone of Tirthan Valley, Western Himalayas. Indian Journal of Forestry. 1998;21(3):217-223.

Subramani SP. Systematic studies on the Flora of Churdhar Wildlife Sanctuary, Himachal Pradesh [Ph. D. Thesis]. Dehradun: FRI (Deemed) University; 2006.

Sharma A, Samant SS. Diversity, structure and composition of forest in Hirb and Shoja catchment of Himachal Pradesh, North West Himalaya, India. International Journal of Botany. 2013;9(1): 50˗54.

Sharma P, Butola S, Kumar V, Himshikha, Malik AR, Saman SS. Vulnerability Assessment and Conservation Prioritization of Ethnomedicinal Plants in Banjar Valley, North-Western Himalaya. Frontiers in Crop Improvement. 2021;9(6):2693-2699.

Laldingliani TBC, Thangjam NM, Zomuanawma R, Bawitlung L, Pal A, Kumar A. Ethnomedicinal study of medicinal plants used by Mizo tribes in Champhai district of Mizoram, India. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 2022;18(1):1-29.

Prakash C and Uniyal VK. Structure of forest vegetation along an altitudinal gradient in the Valley of Flowers, National Park and vicinity, Western Himalayas. Annals of Forestry. 1999;7(1):60-69.

Meenakshi. Studies on phyto-diversity of Shilli Wildlife Sanctuary, Himachal Pradesh [M.Sc. Thesis]. Department of Forest Products, Dr. Y. S. University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan, (H.P); 2002.

Negi CS, Nautiyal S. Phytosociological studies of a traditional reserve forest- Thal Ke Dhar, pithoragarh, central Himalayas (India). Indian Forester. 2005;131(4):519-534.

Rattan V, Singh O. Floristic diversity of woody perennials in Katola range of Mandi forest division, Himachal Pradesh. Indian Forester. 2009;135(12):1686-1692.

Rohit D, Sharma N. Dominance, diversity and species richness of tree species along an altitudinal gradient of a catchment of Garhwal Himalaya. Indian Forester. 2010;7:943-950.

Verma RK, Kapoor KS. Floristic diversity along an altitudinal gradient in Bharmeri beat of Shikari Devi wild life sanctuary of District Mandi, Himachal Pradesh. Indian Journal of Forestry. 2017;40 (4):363-369.

Man V, Verma RK, Chauhan NS, Kapoor KS. Assessment of Floristic Diversity in Phulang Valley of Lippa-Asrang Wildlife Sanctuary of District Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh. Environment & Ecology. 2012; 30(1):226-233.

Negi VS, Maikhuri RK, Rawat LS. Non-timber forest products (NTFPs): A viable option for biodiversity conservation and livelihood enhancement in central Himalaya. Biodiversity and Conservation. 2011;20:545–559.

Thakur SD. Ecological assessment and conservation prioritization of floristic diversity in Tirthan Wildlife Sanctuary, Himachal Pradesh: Material for management strategy. Ph. D. Thesis. FRI Dehradun. 2012;297-307.

Lal M, Samant SS. Compositional and structural diversity of forest vegetation in Kais wildlife sanctuary, North Western Himalaya: conservational implications. Journal of Biodiversity. 2019;10(1-2):1-14.