Seasonal Variations in Imabolo Stream Water Quality in Ankpa Urban Area of Kogi State, Nigeria
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change,
Changes in season is one of the important drivers responsible for pollutants transported into surface waters. This study examined the seasonal variations in the quality of Imabolo stream water within Ankpa urban, Kogi State, Nigeria. To achieve the aim of the study, water samples were collected at the peak of the two seasons from seven points along the stream reach corresponding to the different land-use activities in the study area in March and June, 2018. In-situ and laboratory analysis of eighteen physico-chemical and two microbiological parameters were carried out according to standard procedures. Descriptive statistics and t-test were employed to analyze the data obtained for both dry and rainy seasons. The results were compared with WHO and NSDWQ standards for drinking water quality for characterization. The analysis revealed that water samples from six points had elevated values of parameters above the recommended limits for human consumption. The observed seasonal variation indicated that wet season values were higher for all the parameters except DO and Ca2+, while t-test showed significant difference (p < 0.05) in the level of temperature, EC, TDS, turbidity, BOD, COD, nitrate, sulphate, iron, calcium, lead, cadmium, alkalinity, total hardness, total coliforms and E. coli betweendry and rainy season. The study advances innovative recommendations to remediate and improve the quality of the stream water in order to meet the water needs of the users.
- Water quality
- urban population
- seasonal variation
- water users
How to Cite
Nouri J, Lorestani B, Yousefi N, Khorasani N, Hasani AH, Seif S, Cheraghi M. Phytoremediation potential of native plants grown in the vicinity of Ahangaran lead–zinc mine (Hamedan, Iran). Environ Earth Sci. 2011;62(3):639–644.
Guettaf M, Maoui A, Ihdene Z. Assessment of water quality: A case study of the Seybouse River (North East of Algeria). Appl. Water Sci. 2014;7:295–307.
Eni DevalsamImoke, Efiong Joel. Seasonal variations in hydrochemical parameters of groundwater in Calabar South, Cross River State, Nigeria. British Journal of Arts and Social Sciences. 2011;3(1)85-97.
Ushurhe Ochuko, Origho Thaddeus, Ohwohere – Asuma Oghenero, Ewhuwhe – Ezo John. A comparative assessment of Water Quality Index (WQI) and suitability of River Ase for domestic water supply in urban and rural communities in Southern Nigeria. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science. 2014;4(1): 234-245.
Nwankwoala HO, Angaya YB, Amadi AN, Ameh IM. Contamination risk assessment of physico-chemical and heavy metal distribution in water and sediments of the Choba section of the New Calabar River, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. 2017;4:15-24.
Ushurhe O. Comparative assessment of the seasonal variation in the quality of water from Rivers Ase, Warri and Ethiope in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. International Journal of Innovative Environmental Studies Research. 2013;1 (1):7-20.
Oguntoke O, Aboderin OJ, Bankole AM. Association of water - borne diseases morbidity pattern and water quality in parts of Ibadan City, Nigeria. Tanzania Journal of Health Research. 2009;11(4):189-195. ISSN: 1821- 6404
Raji MIO, Ibrahim YKE. Prevalence of waterborne infections in Northwest Nigeria: A retrospective study. Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology. 2011;3(8):382-385.
Ali M. Footprint in the sand of time. Eckanem Publishing Press, Lagos; 2010.
Iloeje NP. A new geography of West Africa. Longman Group Ltd, Nigeria; 1972.
Areola O. Soil: Nigeria in Maps. 1983;22-23.
APHA. American water works association and water environment federation, Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater (21st Ed). American Public Health Association, Washington DC, USA; 1995.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Water quality Standards handbook: Chapter 3: Water quality criteria. EPA-823-B-17-001. EPA office of water, Office of Science and Technology, Washington, DC; 1994.
American Water Works Association. Water quality and treatment. McGraw-Hill. New York. 1985;654.
World Health Organization (WHO). Guidelines for drinking water quality criteria, 4th ed. Geneva. 2011;307-441.
NSDWQ. Nigerian standard for drinking water quality guidelines. 2nd ed. Nigerian Industrial Standard. 2007;14-21.
Mcdonald AT, Kay D. Water resources: Issues and strategies. Longman; 1988.
Ezemonye MN. Surface and groundwater quality of Enugu urban area. PhD Thesis, Department of Geography, University of Nigeria, Nsukka; 2009.
Sunitha V, Muralidhara RB, Ramakrishna RM. Variation of fluoride and correlation with alkalinity in groundwater of shallow and deep aquifers - A case study in and around Anantapur district, Andhra Pradesh. Int. Journal of Applied Sciences and Engineering Research (IJASER). 2012;1(4):569-575.
Awofolu OR, DU Plessis R, Rampedi I. Influence of discharged effluent on the quality of surface water utilized for agricultural purposes. Afr. J. Biotech. 2007;6(19),22512258.
ANZECC. National Water Quality Management Strategy, guidelines for water quality monitoring and reporting. Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council and Agriculture Resource Management Council of Australia and New Zealand, Canberra; 2000.
Venkatesharaju GO, Fatoki OS, Ekberg A. Assessment of the impact of point source pollution from the Keiskammahoek sewage treatment plant on the Keiskamma River. Water. SA. 2010;27:475-480.
Hala AT, Shrinivara T, Kay D. Water resources: Issues and strategies. Longman; 1988.
WHO / UNICEF JMP. WHO / UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation estimates for the use of Improved sanitation facilities and improved drinking water sources in Nigeria; 1997.
Shrinivasa Rao B, Venkateswaralu P. Physicochemical analysis of selected groundwater samples, Indian J Environ Prot. 2000;20(3):161-169.
Taiwo AM, Olujimi OO, Bamgbose O, Arowolo TA. Surface Water Quality Monitoring in Nigeria: Situational analysis and future management strategy water quality monitoring and assessment. Dr. Voudouris (Ed.); 2012.
Zahoorul Hassan, Javaid Ahmad Shah, Tasawoor Ahmad Kanth, Ashok Kumar Pandit. Influence of land use/land cover on the water chemistry of Wular Lake in Kashmir Himalaya, India. Springer Journal of Ecological Processes. 2015;1-11.
Karanth RB. Variation of fluoride and correlation with alkalinity in groundwater of shallow and deep aquifers - A case study in and around Anantapur district, Andhra Pradesh. Int. Journal of Applied Sciences and Engineering Research (IJASER). 1994;1(4):569-575.
Sanjoy ML, Rakesh KH. A comparative study of the ground and surface water quality with reference to heavy metal concentrations in the Imphalvalley Manipur, India. International Journal of Environmental Science. 2013;3(6):1857-1867.
Adelekan BA, Abegunde KD. Heavy metals contamination of soil and groundwater at automobile mechanic villages in Ibadan Nigeria. International Journal of the Physical Sciences; 2011.
Obeta MC, Ocheje JF, Nwokocha VC. Analysis of the physico-chemical and microbiological quality of Imabolo Stream Water in Ankpa Urban Area of Kogi State, Nigeria. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 2015;6(6 S4):549.
Abstract View: 1914 times
PDF Download: 588 times