Seasonal Variations in Imabolo Stream Water Quality in Ankpa Urban Area of Kogi State, Nigeria

Main Article Content

Johnmark Friday Ocheje
Michael Chukwuma Obeta
Eze, Eberechukwu Jennifer
Nwankwoala, Hycienth Ogunka
Wali, Elekwachi


Changes in season is one of the important drivers responsible for pollutants transported into surface waters. This study examined the seasonal variations in the quality of Imabolo stream water within Ankpa urban, Kogi State, Nigeria. To achieve the aim of the study, water samples were collected at the peak of the two seasons from seven points along the stream reach corresponding to the different land-use activities in the study area in March and June, 2018. In-situ and laboratory analysis of eighteen physico-chemical and two microbiological parameters were carried out according to standard procedures. Descriptive statistics and t-test were employed to analyze the data obtained for both dry and rainy seasons. The results were compared with WHO and NSDWQ standards for drinking water quality for characterization. The analysis revealed that water samples from six points had elevated values of parameters above the recommended limits for human consumption. The observed seasonal variation indicated that wet season values were higher for all the parameters except DO and Ca2+, while t-test showed significant difference (p < 0.05) in the level of temperature, EC, TDS, turbidity, BOD, COD, nitrate, sulphate, iron, calcium, lead, cadmium, alkalinity, total hardness, total coliforms and E. coli betweendry and rainy season. The study advances innovative recommendations to remediate and improve the quality of the stream water in order to meet the water needs of the users.

Water quality, urban population, seasonal variation, pollutants, water users

Article Details

How to Cite
Ocheje, J., Obeta, M., Jennifer, E., Ogunka, N., & Elekwachi, W. (2019). Seasonal Variations in Imabolo Stream Water Quality in Ankpa Urban Area of Kogi State, Nigeria. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, 9(4), 229-241.
Original Research Article


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