Main Article Content
Aims: This study sought to evaluate the adoption of water resource management strategies in hotels in an attempt to attain water sustainability. Specifically, the research sought to assess the current structural and non-structural water resource management strategies adopted by selected hotels in the environs of Lake Naivasha; establish the perceived effectiveness of both the structural and non-structural water resource management strategies adopted to enhance water sustainability; and compare the structural and non-structural water management strategies in terms of their effectiveness in promoting water sustainability in hotels within environs of Lake Naivasha.
Study Design: The study adopted a case study design.
Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in hotels within the environs of Lake Naivasha between May and December 2010.
Methodology: A census of 30 Class (A) registered hotels was conducted, and purposive sampling was used to select 120 respondents from the management staff within the selected hotels. Convenience sampling was used to select 8 managers of water management bodies who acted as key informants during personal interviews. Primary data was collected from the hotel management staff using questionnaires and from managers of water management through personal interviews. Data from questionnaires were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) to derive descriptive statistics on the implementation of WRM strategies.
Results: Findings revealed that a majority of the sampled hotels had embraced water resource management strategies through the development of alternative water resources, use of water saving technology, treatment of recycled water and use of water saving manuals. Further, the structural water resource management strategies were perceived to be more effective as they impacted more on reducing the operating costs, promoted environmental conservation and were more preferred than the non- structural strategies despite being more expensive to implement.
Conclusion: It is concluded that water sustainability is however achievable through a combination of a variety of WRM strategies.
International Business Leaders Forum’s Tourism Partnership (IBLF) and WWF-UK. 2005;18-19.
Republic of Kenya. Welfare Monitoring Survey II, Basic Report. Central Bureau of Statistics, Office of the Vice-President and Ministry of Planning and National Development – Kenya; 1996.
Harper DM, Mavuti KM, Muchiri SM. Ecology and management of Lake Naivasha, Kenya, in relation to climatic change, alien species’ introductions, and agricultural development. Environmental Conservation. 1990;17:328-335.
Lake Naivasha Water Resource Users Association. Sub- Catchment Management Plan; 2008.
Holden A. Environment and Tourism, Routledge, London; 2000.
Yin R. Case study research: Design and methods (1st ed.), CA. Sage Publishing Beverly Hills; 1989.
Singh J, Clouden F. A review of water conservation practices and potential for tourist facilities in Barbados and St. Lucia Caribbean. Activity Report No. 67, Environmental Health Institute; 1999.
Rainwater Connection. Rainwater Collection and Harvesting Systems; 2006.
Goodwin H. ‘No Water, No Future’ Report, International Centre for Responsible Tourism, Leeds Metropolitan University; 2007.
Environment Canada Freshwater Website. How Do We Use It? 2008.
Brandes OM, Maas T, Reynolds E. Thinking beyond pipes and pumps; top 10 ways communities can save water and money. The POLIS Project on Ecological Governance, University of Victoria; 2006.
Anderson J. Ripples in the pond: Water recycling and integrated water management. Water 21. 2001a;16–21.
Warnken J, Bradley M, Guilding C. Eco- resorts vs. mainstream accommodation providers. An investigation of the viability of benchmarking environmental performance. Tourism Management. 2005; 26:367-369.
Cooney E. Water reclamation plant a green winner for Olympic site. Proc. Aust Water Assn 19th Federal Convention, Canberra; 2001.
Schahn J, Holzer E. Construction, validation and application of scales for the measurement of individual environmental concern. Diagnostic Psychology No. 11. 1990; 185-204.