Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase Enzymes: A Possible Virulence Factor for the Management of Antibiotic Resistance Crisis in the Climate Change Era

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Cesare Achilli
Annarita Ciana
Giampaolo Minetti


The problem of antibiotic resistance develops when bacteria are able to grow in the presence of conventional antimicrobial drugs and today represents a serious public health issue. The environmental effects of global warming, by unknown genomic mechanisms of adaption, could dramatically increase this phenomenon and support a more rapid progression to “post-antibiotic era”, in which common infections will be untreatable. Alternative approaches toward drug-resistant bacterial infections need to be explored to ensure effective therapies. Bacterial pathogens produce virulence factors that allow them to invade and to damage host cells. Methionine sulfoxide reductase (Msr) enzymes (MsrAs and MsrBs) are important, but poor studied, virulence factors for many bacterial strains. A deeper insight into their mechanism of action and regulation could help in developing novel therapeutic strategies toward drug-resistant bacteria, in order to overcome the antibiotic resistance crisis.

Antibiotic crisis, bacterial infection, global warming, methionine sulfoxide reductase, MsrA, MsrB, public health, virulence factor

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How to Cite
Achilli, C., Ciana, A., & Minetti, G. (2019). Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase Enzymes: A Possible Virulence Factor for the Management of Antibiotic Resistance Crisis in the Climate Change Era. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, 9(8), 443-446.


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