Assessment of Traditional Palm Wine Tapping Practice Effect on Vegetation in Nasarawa State, Nigeria

Main Article Content

E. H. Mba
A. S. Ekpo
E. C. Ozim
S. O. Oladeinde


Palm wine is an alcoholic drink obtained by the natural fermentation of the sap of various type of palm trees, it produced and consumed in various part of the country and beyond. This rich beverage is been used for different traditional practices not only for occasional consumption, so it is of high demand product. The tapping process starts from traditional dealers known as Palm Wine Tappers, that climbs to the top most part of the palm trees, cut it open from the side or middle, or cut down the tree for the liquid sap and this produces lactic-alcoholic-acetic fermentation that is conducted by the lactic acid bacteria (LAB), yeast and acetic acid bacteria (AAB).

The tapping process practiced in difference part of the country are; burning/falling, pruning and trimming. They poses a threat to palm trees that serves other environmental, economic, health and nutritional benefits to human and the ecosystem. This practice renders high number of palm trees less productive or dead in a society with no food security, shaky economy, poor environmental practice/awareness and tree planting habit. Due to high demand for the product, 4 out of 10 palm trees are been converted to palm wine production source, this implies that the palm tree can not produce palm fruit that is more of high economic benefits and also contributes to the shortage of palm tree lifespan that serves as a good absorbent of carbon and gives out oxygen through photosynthesis process, a measure that adds value to living organism and reduces warming of the environment. This study recommends proper public awareness especially to the people involve in the trade “Palm Wine Tappers” and introduction of more sustainable way of tapping, monitoring and emphasis on tree planting.

Palm tree, palm wine, palm wine tappers, vegetation, fermentation.

Article Details

How to Cite
Mba, E. H., Ekpo, A. S., Ozim, E. C., & Oladeinde, S. O. (2019). Assessment of Traditional Palm Wine Tapping Practice Effect on Vegetation in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, 9(12), 841-851.
Original Research Article


Okafor N. Microbiology and Biochemistry of oil palm wine. Journal of Applied Bacterriology. 1987;42:279-284.

“Elaeis guineensis” Germplasm Resources Information Network(GRIN). Agricultural research service(ARS), United States Department of Agriculture(USDA); 2017.

Thamani M, Babitseng and Demel Teketay. Impact of wine Tapping on the population structure and regeneration of hyphaene petersiana Klotzsch ex mart in Northern Botwana. Ethnobotany research and Applications. 2013;11:i1547-3465-11-009.

Tesfaye G, Teketay D, Fetene M. Regeneration of seven indigenous tree species in a dry Afromontane forest, Southern Ethiopia. FLORA. 2010;205:135-143.

Anonymous. Palm wine brewery and local gin distillation; 2012.

MaPhilips Nwachukwu. How we drink palm wine. Vanguard Nigeria. 2012;5-23.

Dufrene E, Saugier B. Gas exchange of oil palm in relation to light, vapour pressure deficit, temperature and leaf age. Funct, Ecol. 1993;7:94-104.

Ibrahim MH, Jaafar HZE, Haruna MH, Yusop MR. Change in growth and photosynthesis patterns of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis jacq) juvenile exposed to short term CO2 enrichment in a close top chamber Acta Physiol, Plant. 2010;32:305-313.

Jaafar HZE, Ibrahim MH. Photosynthesis and quantum yield of oil palm juvenile to elevated carbon dioxide in Najafpour; M. M(Ed), Advances Photosynthesis fundamental aspects. IntechPubli, Rijeka Crotia. 2012;16:321-340.

Wahid MB, Abdullah SNA, Henson IE. Oil Palm - Achievements and potential. In: New directions for a diverse planet. In: Proceeding of the 4th international Crop Science Congress. Brisbane, Australia; 2004.

Corley RHV. Effect of plant density on growth and yield of oil palm. Exp Agric. 1973;9:169-180.

Corley RHV, Hardon JJ, Tan GY. Analysis of growth of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis jaqc). Estimated growth parameter and application in breeding. Euphyltica. 1971; 20:307-315.

Van Kraalingen DWG, Breure CJ. Simulation of oil palm growth and yield, Agric. For. Meteorol. 1989;46:227-244.

Kingkaew A, Chadapust JS, Reymond JR. Photosynthesis of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) Scientia Horticulturae. 2017; 214:34-40.

Kadhim M. Ibrahim. The role of date palm tree in improvement of the environment. Acta horticulturae. 2010;882(882);777-778.

DOI: 10.17660.

Corley RHV, Teo C. Disbuddimg of mature oil palm as a method of controlling yield fluctuation. Malaysian Agric. Res. Dev. Inst. Res. Bull. 1976;4:1-6.

United State Environmental Agency. Soak rain trees helps reduce runoff; 2017.

Otedo MO. Raphia oil, It’s extraction, properties and utilization. J. Niger, Institute of Palm Oil Research. 1974;5(19): 45-49.

Otedo MO. Raphia palm: The production of piassava in Nigeria, Nigeria Field. 1975; 40(1):4-16.

Ndo BA. The raphia palm, 1st Ed, Concept Publication LTD, Lagos Nigeria. 2003;16.

Hiroko Shimizu, Pierre Desrochers. The health, environmental and economic benefits of palm oil. Institut Economique Molinari; 2012.