Comparative Analysis of the Top Soil Properties under Forested and Deforested Zones: Implications for the Environment

Main Article Content

O. Odekunle
T. O. Ogunbode
P. O. Ogungbile


An investigation was carried out to examine the properties of top soils between 0 and 15cm under both deforested and forested zones in Bowen University, Iwo, Nigeria. Top soil samples in the deforested zone was taken from the Main Gate area of the institution while that of the forested zone was taken from the forested area opposite staff quarters of the University. The soil samples were subjected to standard laboratory tests in the University central laboratory. The results showed that deforested soil has sandy, clay and silt contents of 72.4%, 9.2% and 18.4% respectively while forested soil has 65.2%, 10.8% and 24% in the same order. Also it was discovered that soil under deforestation has organic carbon, organic matter, pH, field capacity, moisture and electrical conductivity of 0.32%, 0.55%, 6.8, 0.72 g, 126.9 g and 230 µʃ/cm respectively while soil under forest has 0.45%, 0.77%, 7.1, 0.90 g, 0.72 g, 129.2 g and 275 µʃ/cm in the same order. The implications of this results is that removal of vegetation contributes to the release of carbon into the atmosphere which increases atmospheric heat, alkalinity of soil, loss of soil nutrients and also could pose limits to the survival of plant growth and also susceptibility of soil to surface wash. Thus, it is recommended that effort should be made to checkmate the removal of vegetation and if unavoidable, relevant policies should be put in place for edge development and its maintenance and also, reforestation steps as remedies to ensure sustainable environment.

Top soil, forested soil, deforested soil, community development, soil properties.

Article Details

How to Cite
Odekunle, O., O. Ogunbode, T., & O. Ogungbile, P. (2020). Comparative Analysis of the Top Soil Properties under Forested and Deforested Zones: Implications for the Environment. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, 10(1), 19-25.
Original Research Article


Sambe LN, Adeofun CO, Dachung C. the economic and ecologuical effects of deforestation on the Nigerian Environment. Asian J. Adv. Res. Rep. 2018;1(2):1-25.

Umana K. Environmental impacts of deforestation in Nigeria. Research cyber, Private Policy; 2018.

Inyang MP, Esohe KP. Deforestation, environmetal sustainability and health implications in Nigeria- A review. Int. J. Sci. Env. Tech. 2014;3(2):502-517.

United Nations. Food and agriculture organization of the United. Natural Forest Management; 2018.
Forest in Nigeria; 2018.

Odjugo PA. General overview of climate change impacts in Nigeria. Journal of Human Ecology. 2010;29(1):47-55.

Omofonmwan SI, Osa-Edoh GI. The challenges of environmental problems in Nigeria. Journal of Human Ecology. 2008; 23(1):53-57.

Akinbamiji J. An integrated strategy for sustainable forest–energy–environment interactions in Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Management. 2003;69(2): 115-28.

Anyanwu JC, Egbuche CT, Amaku GE, Duruora JO, Onwuagba SM. The impact of deforestation on soil conditions in Anambra State of Nigeria. Agriculture, Fosrestry and Fisheries. 2015;4(3-1):64-69.

Nearing MA, Lane LJ, Lopes VL. Modeling soil erosion. In: R. Lal (Ed.) soil erosion research methods (2nd Ed.). Soil and Water Conservation Society, Ankeny, IA. 1994;127-156.

Wang GH. Plant traits and soil chemical variables during a secondary succession on the Loess P1atean. Actabotanicasinica. 2002;44(8):990-998.

Zhang B, Horn R. Mechanisms of aggregate stabilization in Ultisols from subtropical China. Geoderma. 2001;99: 123–145.

Hendershot WH, Lalande H, Duguette M. Soil reacytion and exchangeable acidity in Carter, M.R. (Ed.) Soil Sampling and methods of Analysis for Canadian Society of Soil Science, Lewis Publisher, BOCA Raton, Florida. 1993;141-145.

Adepetu JA, Obi AO, Amusan AA. Soil Science laboratory manual, Department of Soil Science, University of Ife, 2nd Edition. 1984;33-88.

Golterman RT, Clymo RS, Ohnstad MAM. Methods of physical and chemical analyses of soil and freshwater. IBP Handbook, No (8). Blackwell Scientific Publication, Oxford Press. 1978; 214.

Ademoroti CMA. Environmental foludex Press Ltd., Ibadan. 1996;176-177.

Sreerama TO, Wise HE, Mba EH. Assessment of environmental impacts of deforestation in Enugu, Nigeria. Resources and Environment. 2018; 8(4):207-215.

Tefera A, Seyoum T, Woldetsadlik. Effect of disinfection, packaging, and storage environment on the shelf life of mango. Biosys. Eng. 2007;96(2):201-212.

Landis JK, Wayne G, Ming-Ho Yu. Introduction to environmental toxicology: Impacts of chemicals upon ecological systems. CRC Press, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL; 2003.

Hoyle FC. Managing soil organic matter: A practical guide, Grains Research and Development Corporation, Kingston, viewed; 2018.

Viscarra Rossel RA, Webster R, Bui EN, Baldock JA. Baseline map of organic carbon in Australian soil to support national carbon accounting and monitoring under climate change. Global Change Biology. 2014;20:2953–2970.

Ingram JSI, Fernandes ECM. Managing carbon sequestration in soils: concepts and terminology. Journal of Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 2001;87:111–117.

FAO, ITPS. Status of the World’s soil resources (swsr)—main report. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and Intergovernmental Technical Panel on Soils, Rome, Italy; 2015.

Hillel D. Introduction to soil physics. Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2014;2(2):43-47.

Kramer L. Effect of cadmium and arsenic on growth and metal accumulation of cd-hyper accumulator solanim nigrum Biotechnology Reseources. 1983;99(5): 1103-1110.

Hillel D. Soil and water, physical principles and processes. Journal of Water Resource and Protection. 1971;6(19).

Wiatrak P, Khalilian A, Mueller J, Henderson W. Applications of soil electrical conductivity in production agriculture. Better Crops Magazine. 2009; 93(2):16-17.

Eshel G, Levy J, Mingelgrin U, Singer MJ. Critical evaluation of the use of laser diffraction for particle-size distribution analysis. Soil Science Society of American Journal. 2004;68:736-743.

Sandhage-Hofmann A, Kotze E, Van Delden L, Dominiak M, Fouche H, Van der Westhuizen H, Oomen R, Du Preez C, Amelung W. Rangeland management effects on soil properties in the savanna biome, South Africa: A case study along grazing gradients in communal and commercial farms. Journal of Arid Environments. 2015;120:14-25.