Main Article Content
Climate change vulnerability has need access to targeted scientiﬁc information about the impacts of climate change in order to adapt to its effects. Awareness can be measured through three different parameters-conceptualization, engagement and experimental. This research has conduct in Lamjung district where people are victimize from climate change. Primary and secondary sources of data are used. This study used household surveys and focus group discussions to assess people perceptions of these changes and identify the climate change vulnerability. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the Lamjung districts, vulnerable in the context of the climate change. This result is useful for policymaker, local government and different stockholder who are working on climate change sector. It is also important for long term changes in climate variables and occurrences of natural disasters is the most important component to determine the overall vulnerability. Climate change vulnerability had been decreased considerably in this study area. Meanwhile, long-term research in Nepal is required for extensive work on climate change and primary data collection for climate change vulnerability assessment.
Mertz O, Halsnæs K, Olesen JE, Rasmussen K. Adaptation to climate change in developing countries. Environ. Manage. 2009;43(5):743–752.
Pralle SB. Agenda-setting and climate change. Env. Polit. 2009;18(5):781– 799.
Ford ND, Patel SA, Narayan KMV. Obesity in low and middle-income countries: Burden, drivers and emerging challenges, Annu. Rev. Public Health. 2017;38(1):145–164.
Camuffo D, Bertolin C, Craievich A, Schenal P, Granziero R. The little ice age in Italy from documentary proxies and early instrumental records. Mediterranee. 2014; 122(1):17–30.
Tang L, Zhou J, Bobojonov I, Zhang Y, Glauben T. Induce or reduce? The crowding-in effects of farmers’ perceptions of climate risk on chemical use in China. Clim. Risk Manag. 2018;20:27–37.
Le Treut H, Cubasch U, Allen M. Historical overview of climate change science. 2005; 16.
Riaz S, Ali A, Baig MN. Increasing risk of glacial lake outburst floods as a consequence of climate change in the Himalayan region; 2015.
Lockwood JG. Impact of global warming on evapotranspiration. Weather. 1993;48(9): 291–299.
Tonmoy FN, El-Zein A, Hinkel J. Assessment of vulnerability to climate change using indicators: A meta-analysis of the literature. Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Clim. Chang. 2014;5(6):775–792.
Bitsura-Meszaros K, Seekamp E, Davenport M, Smith JW. A PGIS-based climate change risk assessment process for outdoor recreation and tourism dependent communities. Sustain. 2019;11 (12).
Yadava RN, Sinha B. Vulnerability assessment of forest fringe villages of Madhya Pradesh, India for Planning Adaptation Strategies. Sustainability. 2020;12(3):1253.
Adger WN. Vulnerability, Glob. Environ. Chang. 2016;16(3):268–281.
IPCC, Climate Change 2001: Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. IPCC Third Assessment Report; 2001.
Goyal MK, Surampalli RY. Impact of climate change on water resources in India. J. Environ. Eng. (United States). 2018;144(7).
Darrow M. Climate change and the right to water. Hum. Right to Water Theory, Pract. Prospect. 2017;174–222.
Wang Y, Wang J, Li S, Qin D. Vulnerability of the Tibetan pastoral systems to climate and global change. Ecol. Soc. 2014;19(4).
Fischer AP. Forest landscapes as social-ecological systems and implications for management. Landsc. Urban Plan. 2018;177:138–147.
Yanik T, Aslan I. Impact of global warming on aquatic animals. Pak. J. Zool. 2018; 50(1):353–363.
Chaulagain NP. Impacts of climate change on water resources of Nepal: The physical and socio-economic dimensions. IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci. 2009;6(29): 292029.
Przybylak R, Wyszyński P. Air temperature changes in the Arctic in the period 1951–2015 in the light of observational and reanalysis data. Theor. Appl. Climatol. 2020;139:(1–2):75–94.
Ravindranath NH, Sathaye JA. Climate Change: Vulnerability, Impacts and Adaptation. 2002;63–95.
Critto A. Climate change: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Clim. Chang. Impacts, Adapt. Vulnerability Approaches. 2009;8(3):419–429.
Rylander C, Odland JØ, Sandanger TM. Review article. Int. J. Soc. Lang. 2009;140 (1):1–10.
Regmi BR, Bhandari D. Climate change adaptation in Nepal: Exploring ways to overcome the barriers. J. For. Livelihood. 2013;11(1):43–61.
Dhungana N, Khadka C, Bhatta B, Regmi S. Barriers in local climate change adaptation planning in Nepal. J. Law, Policy Glob. 2017;62:20–24.
Ober K, Sakdapolrak P. Whose climate change adaptation ‘barriers’? Exploring the coloniality of climate change adaptation policy assemblages in Thailand and beyond. Singap. J. Trop. Geogr. 2020;41 (1):86–104.
Thapa S, Joshi G. A Ricardian analysis of the climate change impact on Nepalese agriculture. MPRA Pap., no. 29785; 2010.
Malla G. Climate change and its impact on Nepalese agriculture. J. Agric. Environ. 2009;9:62–71.
Shrestha AB, Aryal R. Climate change in Nepal and its impact on Himalayan glaciers. Reg. Environ. Chang. 2011;11(SUPPL. 1):65–77.
Neupane BK, Acharya A, Thapa L. Local People’s perception on climate change at Kamalamai Municipality, Sindhuli. Geogr. Base. 2019;6:21–31.
Paudel B, et al. Farmers’ understanding of climate change in Nepal Himalayas: Important determinants and implications for developing adaptation strategies. Clim. Change; 2019.
Karki M, Mool P, Shrestha A. The initiation, Acta Otolaryngol. 1966;61(S215):8–15.
Acharya K, Tiwari KR, Timilsina YP, PC S. Assessing vulnerability and adaptation strategies of forest dependent people to climate change in the Mid-hills of Nepal. Banko Janakari. 2015;25(1): 55–62.
Chitale VS, et al. Forest climate change vulnerability and adaptation assessment in himalayas. International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives. 2014;1291–1294.
Biggs EM, Tompkins EL, Allen J, Moon C, Allen R. Agricultural adaptation to climate change: Observations from the Mid-Hills of Nepal,” Clim. Dev. 2013;5(2): 165–173.
Joshi A, Farquhar S, Assareh N, Dahlet L, Landahl E. Climate change in Lamjung District, Nepal: Meteorological evidence, community perceptions, and responses,” Environ. Res. Commun. 2019;1(3): 031004.
Sharma AR. Climate Change and Community Perceptions in the Khudi Watershed, Lamjung, Nepal. Hydro Nepal J. Water, Energy Environ. 2015;17:49–54.
Macchi M, Gurung AM, Hoermann B. Community perceptions and responses to climate variability and change in the Himalayas, Clim. Dev. 2015;7(5):414–425.
Khanal U, Wilson C, Hoang VN, Lee B. Farmers’ adaptation to climate change, its determinants and impacts on rice yield in Nepal. Ecol. Econ. 2018;144:139–147.
Krishnan R, et al. The Hindu Kush Himalaya Assessment. Springer International Publishing; 2019.
Sharma E, et al. Introduction to the Hindu Kush Himalaya Assessment,” in The Hindu Kush Himalaya Assessment. 2019;1–16.
Misra A, et al. Diabetes in developing countries. J. Diabetes. 2019;11(7):522–539.
Bista RB, Dahal KR, Gyawali RP. A review of climate change and its effects in the Western Mountainous Water Basin of Nepal. Hydro Nepal J. Water, Energy Environ. 2018;23:79–85.
Metternicht G, Sabelli A, Spensley J. Climate change vulnerability, impact and adaptation assessment. Int. J. Clim. Chang. Strateg. Manag. 2014;6(4):442–476.
Shrestha B, Ye Q, Khadka N. Assessment of ecosystemservices value based on land use and land cover changes in the transboundary Karnali River Basin, Central Himalayas. Sustain. 2019;11(11).
Diane Pruneau, A Khattabi, M Demers. Challenges and possibilities in climate change education. Online Submiss. 2010;7(9):15–24.
Reid A. Climate change education and research: possibilities and potentials versus problems and perils? Environ. Educ. Res. 2019;25(6):767–790.
Gizachew L, Shimelis A. Analysis and mapping of climate change risk and vulnerability in Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia climate change is one of the current issues that severely impact all climate sensitive sectors like agriculture. The Manifestation of Climate Change. 2014;22(6):807–818.
Bitew AM. Strategies to adapt to climate change in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia: Landscape impact assessment for on-farm adaptation. Strategies to Adapt to Climate Change in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia: Landscape Impact Assessment for on-farm Adaptation. 2015; 170.
Malone EL. Vulnerability and resilience in the face of climate change: Current research and needs for population information. Popul. Action Int. 2009;55849.
Tsering K, Sharma E, Chettri N, Shrestha A. Climate change impact and vulnerability in the Eastern Himalayas – Synthesis Report. ICIMOD; 2010.
Shrestha AB, Devkota LP. Climate change in the Eastern Himalayas: Observed trends and model projections; Climate change impact and vulnerability in the Eastern Himalayas - Technical report 1; 2010.
Eriksson M, Jianchu X, Shrestha S, Arun Bhakta Vaidya, Ramesh Ananda Nepal, K Sandström. The changing Himalayas- impact of climate change on water resources and livelihoods in the Greater Himalayas. International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD); 2009.
“Napa,” Gov. Nepal. 2010;6(1):96.
Hatfield JL, et al. Indicators of climate change in agricultural systems. Clim. Change. 2018;1–14.
Fuhrer J. Agricultural systems: Sensitivity to climate change. CAB reviews: Perspectives in agriculture, veterinary science. Nutrition and Natural Resources; 2006.
Panda A. Transformational adaptation of agricultural systems to climate change. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change. 2018;9 (4).