Preliminary Screening of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs); Decabromodiphenyl Ether (BDE-209) and Tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) Flame Retardants in Municipal Dumpsite in Delta State, Nigeria

Main Article Content

Oghenekohwiroro Edjere
Chukwunonso Elvis Stephen


Aims: This study is aimed at determining the concentration of two widely used BFRs; Decabromodiphenyl Ether (BDE-209) and Tetrabromo Bisphenol-A (TBBPA) in sediment and leachate samples.

Place and Duration of Study: Field sampling were carried out from five major dumpsites around Warri Municipality, Delta State, Nigeria. Analyte extraction was done in 2017 at the Science laboratory, Federal University of Petroleum Resources, Effurun Delta State, Nigeria and quantification done in Switzerland by Bachema Analytical Laboratories in 2017.

Methods: Three soil samples were collected from each site 15cm from the soil surface. Also, three leachate samples from three different trial pits done for each site. Collected soil samples were stored in glass bottles and labelled. While the leachate samples are stored using glass containers and labelled. The BFRs were extracted using Aceton and cyclohexane for each soil matrix and cyclohexane for the leachate samples, then the extract was analysed using GC coupled with an ECD supplied by Thermo Trace GC Ultra, Italy.

Results: The results showed the average concentration for TBBPA in the sediments was 0.0234 g/kg and that of the BDE-209 was recorded as 0.1828 g/kg. Results from the leachate sample were below the detectable range of the analytical equipment, TBBPA (0.02 g/kg) and BDE (0.1 g/kg). There is no statistical difference between the mean concentration of TBBPA for the sediment in each of the locations (P>.05) and no difference (P>.05) for BDE-209 for the sediment in each of the locations (P>.05).

Conclusion: Findings from this study holds that the concentration of TBBPA and BDE-209 in sediment is higher when compared with concentrations presented in other literatures studied in this report and this calls for immediate action due to the health risk associated with exposure in these municipalities.

Sediment, leachate, decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209), tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA).

Article Details

How to Cite
Edjere, O., & Stephen, C. E. (2020). Preliminary Screening of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs); Decabromodiphenyl Ether (BDE-209) and Tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) Flame Retardants in Municipal Dumpsite in Delta State, Nigeria. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, 10(7), 1-10.
Original Research Article


Pivnenko K, Granby K, Eriksson E, Astrup T. Recycling of plastic waste: Screening for brominated flame retardants(BFRs).Waste Management. 2017;69:101-109.

Jakob O, Duinker A, Rasinger J, Nilsen B, Sanden M, Frantzen S, Hove H, Lundebye A, Berntssen M, Hannisdal R, Madsen L, Maage A. Factors influencing risk assessments of brominated flame-retardants; evidence based on seafood from the North East Atlantic Ocean. Environment International. 2018;119:544-557.

Dongli W, Cai Z, Jiang G , Leung A, Wong M, Kwok W. Determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soil and sediment from an electronic waste recycling facility, Science-Based Decision Making to Reduce Risks from persistent Organic Pollutants (POPS). Chemosphere. 2005;60:810-816.

Pirard C, Pauw E, Focant J.New strategy for comprehensive analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polychlorinated biphenyls by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.Journal of Chromatography A. 2003;998:169–181.

Schaffer D, Botero M, Ikonomou G. Mass balance evaluation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in landfill leachate and potential for transfer from e-waste. Science of the Total Environment. 2013;461:290-301.

Kike O, Sindiku O, Osibanjo O, Balan S, Weber R. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in chicken eggs and cow milk around municipal dumpsites in Abuja, Nigeria.Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 2019;179:282-289.

Babayemi J, Sindiku O, Weber R. Substance flow analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in plastic from EEE/WEEE in Nigeria in the frame of Stockholm Convention as a basis for policy advice.Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2014;22:14502-14514.

Shu T, Xiaoxia L.Estimation of organic carbon normalized sorption coefficient (Koc) for soils by topological indices and polarity factors. Chemosphere. 1999;39: 2019-2034.

Chen S, Ma Y, Wang J, Chen D, Luo X, Mai B. Brominated flame retardants in children's toys: Concentration, composition, and children's exposure and risk assessment.Environmental Science and Technology. 2009;43:4200-4206

Dishaw L, Powers C, Ryde I, Roberts S, Seidler F, Slotkin T, Stapleton H.Is the PentaBDE replacement, tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP),a developmental neurotoxicant? Studies in PC12 cells. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 2011;256:281-289.

BehlM, Rice J, Smith M, Co C, Bridge M, Hsieh J, Freedman J, Boyd W.Editor’s highlight: Comparative toxicity of organophosphate flame retardants and polybrominated diphenyl ethers to caenorhabditiselegans. Toxicological Science. 2016;154:241-252.

Saunders D, Higley E, Hecker M, Mankidy R, Giesy J. In vitro endocrine disruption and TCDD-like effects of three novel brominated flame retardants: TBPH, TBB, and TBCO, Chemosphere. 2013;91:1386-1394.

World Health Organization (WHO), Agents Classified by the IARC Monographs; 2018.

Eriksson P, Jakobsson E, Fredriksson A. Brominated flame retardants: A novel class of developmental neurotoxicants in our environment?. Environ Health Perspect. 2001;109:903–908.

Essien J, Inam E, Ikpe D, Udofia G, Benson N. Ecotoxicological status and risk assessment of heavy metals in municipal solid wastes dumpsite impacted soil in Nigeria.Environmental Nanotechnology, Monitoring & Management. 1994;11: 100215.

Babayemi J, Osibanjo O, Weber R. Inventory and substance flow analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the Nigerian transport sector – contribution for end-of-life vehicles policy and management. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2018;5:31793-31928.

Chinedu I, Ezeibe C, Anijiofor S, Daud N. Solid Waste Management in Nigeria: Problems, Prospects, and Policies. Journal of solid waste Technology and Management. 2018;44:163-172.

Delta State. Nigeria subdivision population. Available:

Pinne lV, Vandegans J, Analysis of VOC being adsorbed on charcoal. “Purge and trap” and Soxhlet extraction: Two complementary techniques. Studies in Environmental Science. 1994;61:507-514.

WangW,Meng B, Lu X, Liu Y, Tao S. Extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides from soils: A comparison between Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction and accelerated solvent extraction techniques.Analytica Chimica Acta. 2007;602:211-222.

Özcan M, Ghafoor K, Juhaimi F, Ahmed I, Babiker E. Effect of cold-press and soxhlet extraction on fatty acids, tocopherols and sterol contents of the Moringa seed oils. South African Journal of Botany. 2019;124: 333-337.

Kingsley E. The Waste to Wealth Concept: Waste market operation in Delta State, Nigeria. 2012;2:206-212.
European/German Norm DIN EN 62321. Available: chromatography-mass-spectrometry-using-a-pyrolyzer-thermal-desorption-accessory-py-td-gc-ms/

Eguchi A, Isobe T, Ramu K, Tue N, Sudaryanto A, Devanathan G, Viet P, Tana R, Takahashi S, Subramania A, Tanabe S. Soil contamination bybrominated flame retardants in open waste dumping sites in Asian developing countries.Chemosphere. 2013;90:2365-2371.

Zweidinger R,Cooper S, Erickson M, Michael L, Pellizzari E. Sampling and analysis for semi volatile brominated organics in ambient air. In: Monitoring Toxic Substances,ACS Symposium Series. 1979;94:217–231

Zhou X,Guo J, Zhang W, Zhou P, Deng J , Lin K. Tetrabromobisphenol A contamination and emission in printed circuit board production and implications for human exposure.Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2014;273:27-35.

COT, Statement on Tetrabromobisphenol A—Review of toxicological data .committee on toxicity of chemicals in food, consumer products and the environment, food standards agency, London, England; 2004.