Relationship between Rainfall Pattern in North Central and Southern Nigeria and Some Tropical Climate Systems

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Esmond Gesever Ugbeji
Kingsley Chukwudi Okpala


Monthly rainfall data from meteorological stations in Nigeria are analyzed from 1951 to 1992, to establish their relationship with some Tropical climate systems. The climate systems include Tropical South Atlantic (TSA) sea surface temperature index, North Atlantic Ocean (NAO) atmospheric index, Tropical North Atlantic (TNA) sea surface temperature index, Central India Precipitation (CIP) and and Outgoing Longwave Radiation Anomaly (OLRA)).  The rainfall pattern was given in terms of the August break (quantified in terms of the monsoon break intensity (MBI) and annual rainfall anomaly index (RAI). Partial correlation analysis was carried out to determine the effect of the tropical climate systems on the linear association between them and the stations in Nigeria. Our results show that the rainfall anomalies although sometimes intense do not have predictable patterns. The tele connection between CIP and total rainfall in Nigeria suggests that the rainfall patterns in Nigeria is likely to be modulated by the Tropical Easterly Jet (TEJ) connecting rainfall pattern in Central India to that in Nigeria. The August break is observed to be highly variable and does not show a clear discernable pattern of variability. Its variability may be connected with multiple forcings from ocean and mesoscale circulations.

Climate, monsoon rainfall, rainfall anomaly, teleconectivity

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How to Cite
Ugbeji, E. G., & Okpala, K. C. (2020). Relationship between Rainfall Pattern in North Central and Southern Nigeria and Some Tropical Climate Systems. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, 10(7), 74-88.
Original Research Article


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