Main Article Content
Global warming effects have far reaching impacts of livelihoods of many rural communities including fishers. It is in record that fishing accounts for world’s 36 million fishers nearly 1.5 billion consumers who rely on fish for their dietary animal protein. Past studies have concentrated on fisher communities and climate variability in marine waters and oceans; mainly investigating the impact of climate variability on fish distribution and production. Limited focus has addressed the interaction between impacts of climate change on the fishing activities on inland and fresh waters such as in Lake Victoria and the fishers coping and adapting with changes and variability of climate. The discussions in this article focused on Lake Victoria shore location of Mbita where the livelihood of local community is largely fishing. The objectives were to: Determine the influence of gender on access and control of fisher resources for climate adaptation in Mbita sub-county; Document the current coping strategies and constraints to Climate variability/change in Mbita sub-county. The study used a constructivist epistemology and the mixed methods research design to help it achieve its findings. Yamane’s formula (1964) is used to get the sample size of 388 respondents out of a population of 13191. Primary data was collected through use of questionnaires, interview schedules for KII and FGDs. Secondary data collection was collected through document reviews of relevant past studies reports and working papers on (temperature/rainfall data) of Mbita for the last 30 years data to get the trend of these elements and to determine climate variability and change. The instruments were validated using experts’ content validity with the supervisors. Piloting was used to ascertain reliability of the instruments Analysis was accomplished using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences. Presentation was done in descriptive and inferential statistics. The study found that there was gender discrimination in access and control of resources which support adaptive activities that makes women more vulnerable to Climate Variability/Change hazards and disasters. The study further found that adaptation requires access and control of factors of production which were traditionally under the control of male fishers making women more vulnerable and susceptible to surviving through chamas and table banking activities. Statistically access to and control was significant to adaptation at p-value of 0.000. Under coping strategies the study found that adaptation required transformation of mind set that called for bigger investment which required the collaboration and consultation of entire Mbita community and county government to address environmental and conservative resource utility. The study concluded that lack of alternative livelihood opportunities/options is the major constraints to adaptation for people living in the Lake Victoria region escalated with limitation of skills outside fishing industry, limitation of other employable professional skills including lack of capital. The study recommends a transdiciplinary concientization of adaptive strategies which can translate into flexible and sustainable climate change adaptation and gender inclusive livelihood activities. Future research should explore participatory action research on environmental influences affecting CCA by comparing findings across other beaches and livelihoods to see if gendered resources have any role in their adaptation.
IPCC. Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York; 2014.
Badjeck C, Mendo J, Wolff M, Lange H. Climate variability and the peruvian scallop fishery: The role of formal institutions in resilience building in Climatic Change; 2009.
World Bank. Reviving Lake Victoria by Restoring Livelihoods. World Bank, Washington .DC; 2016.
Available: http://www.worldbank.org/en/ news/feature/2016/02/29/reviving-lake-victoria-by-restoring-livelihoods
Denton F. Climate change vulnerability, impacts, and adaptation: Why does gender matter? Gender and Development. Institute of Development Studies at the University of Sussex 35; 2004.
Lentisco A, Alonso E. On gender mainstreaming strategies and tools in fisheries development projects: RFLP gender strategy and lessons from the Asia-Pacific Region. Gender in aquaculture and fisheries: moving the agenda forward. Asian Fisheries Science Special. 2012;25S:105–117.
Daw T, Adger N, Brown K, Badjeck M-C. Climate change and capture fisheries. In: Cochrane K, De Young C, Soto D. Climate change and capture fisheries. University of East Anglia, Norwich World Fish Center, Penang; 2008.
Béné C, Merten S. Women and fish-for-sex: transactional sex, HIV/AIDS and gender in African fisheries. World Development. 2008;36(5)..
Nyukuri E. Gender approaches in climate compatible development: lessons from Kenya (Climate Development Knowledge Network; 2016.
De Silver. Faces of women in global fisheries value chain: impact and importance in the fisheries of developed and developing countries. NORAD/FAO Value chain project; 2011.
Nwabeza O, Ifegika A, Tafida, Oyanda JO, Erie P, Belonwu NE. Gender and fisheries of lake Kainji, Nigeria: A review. Journal of fisheries and aquaculture; 2013.
Brashares J, Arcese P, Sam M, Coppolillo P, Sinclair A, Balmford A. Bushmeat hunting, wildlife declines, and fish supply in West Africa.Science; 2004.
Njayaa F, Snyder KA, Jamu D, Wilson J, Howard-Williams C, Allison EH, Andrew NL. Journal of Great Lakes Research. 2011;37(S1):15-25.
Nwabeze PI, Ifejika AA, Tafida JO, Ayanda AP, Erie, Belonwu NE. Gender and Fisheries of Lake Kainji, Nigeria: A Review. Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science. 2013;8:9-13.
HCIDP. Homa Bay County Integrated Development Plan. 2017;2013–2017.
Go K. Homa Bay County Integrated Development Plan 2013-2017. Nairobi, Kenya: Government Printers; 2013.
Lake Victoria Biennial Fisheries Frame Survey. National Report, Ministry of Agriculture Livestock and Fisheries. The Frames Survey Working Group Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya; 2016.
Yamane, Taro. 1967. Statistics, An Introductory Analysis, 2nd Ed., New York: Harper and Row.