Impact of Lockdown amid COVID-19 Pandemic on Temperature and Rainfall in Sub-Himalayan Ranges of Jammu & Kashmir Union Territory, India

Main Article Content

Mahender Singh
Vishaw Vikas
Sushmita M. Dadhich
Rohit Sharma


The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of lockdown on temperature and rainfall in sub-Himalayan ranges i.e. Foothills of NW Shivaliks and Pir Panjal ranges of Jammu & Kashmir Union Territory, India. The statistical analysis inferred that due to the implementation of complete lockdown in region amid COVID-19 pandemic has brought reductions in day temperature in foothills of NW Shivaliks by 10.29% and 2.20% compared to year 2018 and 2019 respectively. While under Pir Panjal range the reduction in day temperature was found to be significant by 6.08% and 4.13%. Also evaluation of night temperature values revealed the significant reductions by 10.29% and 2.20% as compared to year 2018 and 2019 in foothills of NW Shivaliks and 10.37%, 5.93% in Pir Panjal. The Rainfall also increased in both sub-Himalayan ranges during this period and it was >100% and 70.25% under foothills of NW Shivaliks, 34.6% and 100% under Pir Panjal range. Hence the present study highlighted a plausible impact of lockdown on the weather parameters of the region, making it an efficient tool to mitigate the pace of regional changing climatic patterns for long term sustainability, productivity and for better soil, plant and animal health.

Northwestern foothills of shivaliks, pir panjal, day and night temperature, rainfall, COVID-19, climate change

Article Details

How to Cite
Singh, M., Vikas, V., Dadhich, S. M., & Sharma, R. (2020). Impact of Lockdown amid COVID-19 Pandemic on Temperature and Rainfall in Sub-Himalayan Ranges of Jammu & Kashmir Union Territory, India. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, 10(12), 110-125.
Original Research Article


Friedlingstein P. Supplemental data of the Global Carbon Budget 2019: ICOS-ERIC Carbon Portal; 2019. Available:

Peters G, PCorinne Le Quéré, Robbie M. Andrew, Josep G. Canadell, Pierre Friedlingstein, Tatiana Ilyina, Robert B. Jackson, Fortunat Joos, Jan Ivar Korsbakken, Galen A. McKinley, Stephen Sitch, Pieter Tans. Towards real-time verification of CO2 emissions, Nat. Clim. Change. 2020;7:848–850. Available:

Solaymani S. CO2 emissions patterns in 7 top carbon emitter economies: The case of transport sector. Energy. 2019;168:989–1001.

Borunda A. Climate change is roasting the Himalaya region, threatening millions, Over 200 scientists collaborated on a report that forecasts a hot future for the high mountains of Asia. NGC; 2019.

Sivakumar K, Sathyakumar S, Rawat GS. A preliminary review on conservation status of shiwalik landscape in northwest India. India Environment Portal; 2010. Available:

Agarwal DK, Farooquee NA, Samal PK, Sharma S, Palni LMS. Siwalik Development Strategy I. Action Plan. G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, almora; 2002.

J&K beats global warming average; 2017. Available:

Paul Yash. Economic potential of Pir Panjal region in J&K state. International Journal of Advanced Research and Development. 2017;2(6):499-502.

WHO. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Situation Report–63; 2020. Availableat:.

Mandal Indrajit, Pal Swades. COVID-19 pandemic persuaded lockdown effects on environment over stone quarrying and crushing areas. Sci Total Environ. 2020;732:139281.

Gupta N, Tomar A, Kumar V. The effect of COVID-19 lockdown on the air environment in India. Global Journal of Environmental Science and Management. 2020;6(SI):31-40.

ESA; 2020. Available:

Singh Mahinder, Vikas Vishaw, Sharma Charu, Sharma Rohit. Effect of Lockdown amid COVID-19 Pandemic on Weather Parameters of Mid Hill Region of Jammu District of J&K, UT. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change. 2020;10(9):53-77.

Williams KD. Greenhouse effect: Greenhouse gases and their impact on global warming. Journal of Scientific Research & Reports. 2017;17(6):1-9.

Manabe S. Role of greenhouse gas in climate change. Dynamic Meteorology and Oceanography. 2019;71(1):1-13.

Ghosh Sasanka, Das Arijit, Hembram Tusar Kanti, Saha Sunil, Pradhan Biswajeet, Alamri Abdullah M. Impact of COVID-19 Induced Lockdown on Environmental Quality in Four Indian MegacitiesUsing Landsat 8 OLI and TIRS-Derived Data andMamdani Fuzzy Logic Modelling Approach. Sustainability. 2020;12:5464. DOI:10.3390/su12135464.

Monserrate Manuel A. Zambrano, María Alejandra Ruano, Luis Sanchez-Alcalde. Indirect effects of COVID-19 on the environment. Science of the Total Environment. 2020;728:1-4.

Patni Kiran, Jindal Manoj Kumar. A positive perspective during COVID-19 related to groundwater crisis. Groundwater for Sustainable Development. 2020;11:1-2.

Uchiyama R, Okochi H, Katsumi N, Ogata H. The impact of air pollutants on rainwater chemistry during “urban-induced heavy rainfall” in downtown Tokyo, Japan. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 2017;122:6502–6519. Available: 2017JD026803.

American Association for the advancement of Science. Air Pollution Can Prevent Rainfall. Science Daily; 2020. Available at: 314065455.htm. (Accessed 18 May 2020).

Bhat Bilal Ahmad, Kumar Parmil, Riyaz Shazia, Manzoor Shazia, Geelani SNZ, Tibetbaqal Aadil, Ashraf Syed Sabahat, Sultan Mir Misba. Local perception of climate change, COVID-19 and their impact on birds in Jammu and Kashmir. International Journal of Science and Healthcare Research. 2020;5(2):183- 192.

Harvey C. CO2 can directly impact extreme weather, Research Suggests; 2018.