Main Article Content
The noticeable decline of flow and drying of rivers in non-monsoon period is observed by smaller hydrologic units (sub-catchments and watersheds). The flow depletion or drying of rivers is generally observed initially near the origin and then progressively in the larger hydrologic units. Rivers are losing water because of variety of possible reasons, including the installation of dams and the use of water for agriculture. But in many cases the decrease in flow is because of climate change, which is altering rainfall patterns and increasing evaporation because of higher temperatures. Reduced run-off is increasing the pressure on freshwater resources in world as well as in India, especially with more demand for water as population increases. Inspite of the fact that large sums of money have been spent on river rehabilitation across the globe, the understanding of the science of restoration is incoherent. A scientific and global intervention and approach to tackle such challenges to river management in India requires a highly effective approach, which must be process-based, predictive and must be capable of yielding the desired outcome. River restoration is one of the most prominent areas of applied water-resources science, supporting a multibillion dollar industry across many countries and helping to drive fundamental river research to address knowledge gaps that limit successful restoration. A revival strategy should identify a future prospect and long run for the river basin, the desired outcome of the strategy over the planning horizon (goals), and specific, measurable targets to be achieved over the short to medium term (objectives). River restoration can be supported by a combination of policies, strategies and project-level and global-level plans. Keeping this in view this paper presents some of the revival works carried out in India as well as in abroad.
Carsten Lange, Matthias Schneider, Michael Mutz, Martin Haustein, Martin Halle, Michael Seidel, Heiko Sieker, Christian Wolter, Reinhard Hinkelmann. Model-based design for restoration of a small urban river. Journal of Hydro-environment Research. 2015;9:226-236.
Devendra S. Bhargava. Revival of Mathura’s ailing Yamuna River. Environmentalist. 2006;26:111–122.
Rajendra Singh. His tryst with water and peace. Jour. Geol. Soc. India. 2015; 85:521-524.
Shashank Shekhar. Environmental flows and river rejuvenation. Journal of the Geological Society of India. 2016;1-7.
Rajendra Singh. Community driven approach for artificial recharge –TBS experience. India Water Portal; 2016.
Muhar S, Januschke K, Kail J, Poppe M, Schmutz S, Hering D, Buijse AD. Evaluating good-practice cases for river restoration across Europe: Context, methodological framework, selected results and recommendations. Hydrobiologia. 2016;769:3–19.
Maged Youssef, Bashir Abou Ali. Revival of forgotten rivers through recreating the cultural promenade: A case study of the revival of Beirut river, Lebanon. Ecology and The Environment. 2017;226 :725-737.
Sachin Tiwale, Amit Deshmukh. Combating drought with a haphazard measure: A story of Manjra river rejuvenation. India Water Portal. 2017;1-15.
Ellen Wohl, Stuart N. Lane, Andrew C. Wilcox. The science and practice of river restoration. Water Resources Research. 2015;(51):5974–5997.
Manu Bhatnagar, Ritu Singh, Mohd. Sajid Idrisi, Abhishek Kr. Upadhyay. Reviving the Hindon River: A basin approach. Natural Heritage Division, INTACH, New Delhi. 2017;1-13.
Van Alphen J, Havinga H. River restoration demands management transformation. Conference on river restoration practical approaches. Wageningen. 2000;266.
Kałuża T, Radecki-Pawlik A, Szoszkiewicz K, Plesiński K, Radecki-Pawlik B, Laks I. Plant basket hydraulic structures (PBHS) as a new river restoration measure. Sci Total Environ. 2018;627:245-255.
Mark Everard. Community-based groundwater and ecosystem restoration in semi-arid north Rajasthan (1): socio-economic nprogress and lessons for groundwater dependent areas. Bhu-Jal News Quarterly Journal. 2016;24(4):53-56.
Vyas KG. Rivers: Not just clean them, revive them. India Water Portal. 2016;1-2.
Subhojit Goswami. This dying river in Karnataka is now coming back to life. Down to Earth; 2017.
Speed Robert, Tickner, David, Naiman, Lei Gang, Sayers, Paul, Wei Yu, Li Yuanyuan, Huang Houjian, Cao Jiantin, Yu Lili, Zhao Zhongnan. River restoration: A strategic approach to planning and management; 2016.
Fei Yuan, Kali E. Sawaya, Brian C. Loeffelholz, Marvin E. Bauer. Land cover classification and change analysis of Twin Cities (Minnesota) metropolitan area by multitemporal Landsat remote sensing; 2005.
Fikirte Demissie, Kumelachew Yeshitela, Mengistie Kindu, Thomas Schneider. Land use/land cover changes and their causes in Libokemkem district of south Gonder, Ethiopia; 2017.
Ahmed Barakat, Rida khellouk, Aafaj El Jazouli, Fatima Touhami, Samir Nadem. Monitoringb of forest cover dynamics in eastern area of Beni-Mellal Province using ASTER and Sentinel-2A multispectral data; 2018.
Yann Le Polain de Waroux, Eric F. Lambin. Monitoring degradation in arid and semi-arid forests and woodlands: The case of the argan woodlands (Morocco); 2012.
Hammi S, Vincent Simonneaux, Cordier JB, Didier Genin, Mohamed Alifriqui, Nicolas Montes, Laurent Auclair. Can tradional forest management buffer forest depletion? Dynamics of Moroccan high Atlas mountain forests using remote sensing and vegetation analysis; 2010.
Xiao‐Wei Jiang, Li Wan, Bayani Cardenas M, Shemin Ge, Xu‐Sheng Wang. Simultaneous rejuvenation and aging of groundwater in basins due to depth‐decaying hydraulic conductivity and porosity. Geophysical Research Letters. 2010;37:1-5.