Smallholder Farmers’ Vulnerability to Impact of Climate Change in Central Bhutan

Main Article Content

Pema Rinzin
Thubten Sonam
Sangay Tshering
Purna Prasad Chapagai


Climate change carries immense threat to the livelihood and food security of smallholder farmers in Bhutan and it is therefore crucial to enhance their adaptive capacity.  However, building resiliency to climate impact require information on vulnerability of the system of interest. Therefore, this study assessed smallholder farmers’ vulnerability to impacts of climate change and variability in central regions (Bumthang and Trongsa) of Bhutan. Data was collected from 247 randomly selected households by administering a pre-tested survey questionnaire. Data was analyzed using composite index approach (LVI) and IPCC framework approach (LVI-IPCC). The LVI analysis revealed that Bumthang was more vulnerable in terms of Socio-demographic profile (0.55), social networks (0.45), health (0.31) and natural disasters and climate variability (0.47) compared to Trongsa. Whereas, Trongsa was more vulnerable in terms of livelihood strategies (0.31) and water (0.13). Vulnerability score on the food component was same for both the districts (0.27). Overall, Bumthang was more vulnerable compared to Trongsa on both LVI (Bumthang: 0.36, Trongsa: 0.34) and LVI-IPCC (Bumthang: 0.24, Trongsa: 0.13) analysis. The findings could be used for designing micro-level context specific interventions to enhance smallholder farmers’ adaptive capacity to impacts of climate change in central Bhutan.

Climate Change, farmer, impact, livelihood, vulnerability

Article Details

How to Cite
Rinzin, P., Sonam, T., Tshering, S., & Chapagai, P. P. (2020). Smallholder Farmers’ Vulnerability to Impact of Climate Change in Central Bhutan. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, 10(12), 286-299.
Original Research Article


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