Impact of Residue Incorporation on Soil Carbon Storage, Soil Organic Fractions, Microbial Community Composition and Carbon Mineralization in Rice-wheat Rotation – A Review
International Journal of Environment and Climate Change,
In agroecosystems, straw return is a useful management strategy for increasing soil fertility and crop productivity. The total organic carbon (TOC), dissolved organic C (DOC), and microbial biomass C (MBC) contents all increased significantly when compared to the no straw return (N) and straw return (S) treatments, while the easily oxidizable C content remained same. The S treatment resulted in a 28–52 percent increase in soil light fraction, light fraction organic C, and particle organic C over the N treatment. When compared to the N treatment, crop straw return increased total phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), bacterial biomass, and actinomycete biomass by 52, 75, and 56 percent, respectively. Under short-term crop straw return, MBC and TOC were the two key determinants determining microbial populations. In comparison to residue removal, residue retention (RR) enhanced SOC storage by 11.3 percent. SOC content and contribution of macro-aggregates in the 0-20 cm depth and micro-aggregates in the 20-40 cm depth rose significantly when no-tillage and straw returns were used together. When no-tillage with straw returning (NTS) was used instead of CT, SOC content, mean weight diameter (MWD), geometric mean diameter (GMD), and fractal dimensions (FD) rose by 25%, 21%, 19%, and 12%, respectively, in the 0-20 cm depth. Soil micro-aggregates were greater in the 20-40 cm depth after CTS treatment. In the 0-20 cm depth, the percentages of macro- and micro-aggregates increased by 60% and 40%, respectively, under NTS. MWD, GMD, > 5, 2-5, 1-2, and 0.25-0.5 mm aggregates all had a positive linear relationship with the SOC. Microbial biomass C (MBC) was considerably enhanced by 20.0 percent when compared to conventional tillage (CT) and no-tillage (NT), but total organic C (TOC), dissolved organic C (DOC), readily oxidizable C (EOC), and SOC of aggregates were not affected. MBC increased by 18.3% and SOC content of 2–1-mm aggregate increased by 9.4% when residue was returned. Total PLFAs grew by 9.8%, while fungal biomass increased by 40.8 percent, thanks to NT. Total PLFAs, bacterial biomass, fungal biomass, F/B, and MUFA/STFA were all increased by 31.1, 36.0, 95.9, 42.5, and 58.8 percent, respectively, while microbial stress was reduced by 45.9%. Wheat straw return had a considerable impact on the bacterial community in the soil, but not on the fungus community. It increased the relative abundance of the bacteria phylum Proteobacteria and the fungal phylum Zygomycota, while decreasing the relative richness of the bacterial phylum Acidobacteria and the fungal phylum Ascomycota. It increased the relative abundance of nitrogen-cycling bacterial taxa including Bradyrhizobium and Rhizobium, among others. This diversity includes bacteria, cyanobacteria, archaea, planctomycetes, and -proteobacteria, as well as endophytes. The system's intricacy and dynamic nature necessitate in-depth research on the three-part interactions between plants, microorganisms, and the soil-water environment.
- Crop residue returning
- SOC fractions
- Microbial community
- SOC storage
How to Cite
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