Diseases and Pests Harmful to Honeybees (Apis spp.) and Their Management Tactics: A Review

Dhananjay Kushwaha

Department of Entomology, Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture & Technology, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh (208002), India.

Katta Subramanya Sai Teja

Department of Entomology, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University, Samastipur, Bihar (848125), India.

Nagendra Kumar

Department of Entomology, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University, Samastipur, Bihar (848125), India.

Ashutosh Singh Aman

Department of Entomology, Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture & Technology, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh (208002), India.

Arun Kumar *

Department of Entomology, Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture & Technology, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh (208002), India.

Shailja Jaiswal

Department of Entomology, Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture & Technology, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh (208002), India.

Madan Mohan Bajpeyi

Department of Entomology, Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture & Technology, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh (208002), India.

Anam Khan

Institute of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Sri Ramswaroop Memorial University, Lucknow-Deva Road, Barabanki, Uttar Pradesh (225003), India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Honeybees (Apis spp.) play a vital role in pollination and contribute significantly to global agriculture. However, the health and survival of honeybee colonies are threatened by a range of harmful insect pests and diseases. This review provides an overview of the major pests and diseases that impact honeybee colonies and explores the diverse management tactics employed to mitigate their effects. The primary focus is on key pests such as the Varroa mite (Varroa destructor), which inflicts considerable damage by parasitizing adult bees and their brood, facilitating the transmission of debilitating viruses. Management strategies for Varroa mites encompass chemical treatments, integrated pest management (IPM) approaches, and organic treatments to curtail mite populations and prevent colony collapse. Another significant threat discussed is the small hive beetle (Aethina tumida), a beetle species that disrupts hives by laying eggs in comb and consuming stored resources. Hive manipulation, traps, and chemical controls are among the tactics utilized to control small hive beetle populations and mitigate their impact. The review also addresses wax moths (Galleria mellonella and Achroia grisella), which target hive comb, potentially causing comb destruction and honey fermentation. Hive maintenance, freezing, and pheromone traps are outlined as effective strategies to combat wax moth infestations. Additionally, the review covers Nosema infections (Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae), and microsporidian parasites that compromise adult bee health by weakening immune systems and reducing foraging efficiency. Hive hygiene, medications, and genetic selection are explored as methods to manage Nosema infections and bolster colony resilience. To effectively manage these harmful pests and diseases, a holistic and integrated approach is recommended. Beekeepers are encouraged to remain informed about the latest research findings and implement appropriate measures, considering local conditions and sustainable beekeeping practices. By combining scientific knowledge with practical application, the resilience of honeybee colonies can be enhanced, ensuring the vital role they play in pollination and global food security.

Keywords: Global food security, honeybees, Nosema infections, Varroa mite and Wax moths


How to Cite

Kushwaha , D., Teja , K. S. S., Kumar , N., Aman , A. S., Kumar , A., Jaiswal , S., Bajpeyi , M. M., & Khan , A. (2023). Diseases and Pests Harmful to Honeybees (Apis spp.) and Their Management Tactics: A Review. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, 13(11), 95–109. https://doi.org/10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113149

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