Drought Forecasting Using Standard Precipitation Index Based on Rainfall of Western Region

Deepak Kumar Mishra

School of Agricultural Sciences and Engineering, IFTM University, Moradabad (UP) -244102, India.

Ram Kumar *

School of Agricultural Sciences and Engineering, IFTM University, Moradabad (UP) -244102, India.

B. R. Singh

College of Technology, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut-250110, India.

P. V. Singh

Department of Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, College of Technology, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar (Uttarakhand) -263145, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Drought has always been one of the most dangerous natural disasters for manhood. Due to the continuous global climate change, drought occurrences have become more frequent and severe, affecting human existence and long-term social progress.  PIStandard values are a measure of the probability of a given precipitation event occurring. They are calculated using a statistical distribution of precipitation data. The three statistical distributions that are most commonly used to model precipitation data are the gamma distribution, the normal distribution, and the log-normal distribution. Therefore, utilising all three of the above-mentioned theoretical probability distributions, the drought index PIStandard has been computed. PIStandard range more than 2 (extremely wet) to less than -2 (extremely dry), with 0.99 to - 0.99 considered the near-normal range. PIStandard is calculated at different time scales which can be 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months, time scales. The temporal trends of SPI at the stations were identified using the Mann-Kendall test. PIStandard were computation at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24-month time scales. PIStandard provides a better analysis of meteorological drought at multiple different timescales for short- and long-term planning because it uses the running sum of rainfall values at 1 to 24 months and more parameters for the statistical distribution used. For short-term drought monitoring and agricultural crop planning, a 1- to 3-month PIStandard can be utilized; however, long-term hydrological drought monitoring and water management planning require PIStandards of 6 to 9 months and 12 to 24 months, respectively. Drought analysis using PIStandard results can be used to design rainwater harvesting and storage structures in drought-affected areas for appropriate crop planning.

Keywords: Rainfall, standardized precipitation index (PIStandard), running sum

How to Cite

Mishra, D. K., Kumar, R., Singh , B. R., & Singh , P. V. (2023). Drought Forecasting Using Standard Precipitation Index Based on Rainfall of Western Region . International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, 13(11), 687–701. https://doi.org/10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113214


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