Pulse Productivity and Profitability as Influenced by Cluster Frontline Demonstrations in Kupwara District of Jammu and Kashmir, India

Raies A. Bhat *

Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kupwara, SKUAST, Kashmir, India.

Kaiser M. Malik

Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kupwara, SKUAST, Kashmir, India.

Sajad Mohi ud Din

Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Srinagar, SKUAST, Kashmir, India.

S. A. Hakeem

Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kupwara, SKUAST, Kashmir, India.

F. A. Raina

Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kupwara, SKUAST, Kashmir, India.

F. N. Bhat

Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kupwara, SKUAST, Kashmir, India.

R. Nissar

District Agromet Unit, KVK, Kupwara, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


The cluster frontline demonstrations (CFLDs) on Rajmash and Greengram were conducted by Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kupwara, J&K at farmers’ fields during the year 2021. Through farmer meetings and group discussions, the crucial inputs in the production technology were identified. The results for Rajmash and Greengram showed that overall yield trends of demonstrations varied from 7.00 q/ha to 11 q/ha and 6.00 q/ha to 9.00 q/ha, respectively, with yield increase of 57.14%  and 50% over the yield of local practices. Due to significant heterogeneity in the extent of adoption of recommended technology based on the level of risk associated in terms of cost,convenience, skill, and information regarding the concerned practise, the yield levels were much lower under local practices. Rajmash and greengram's average extension gap, technology gap, and technology index, respectively, were found to be 4.00, 1.00 q/ha and 8.33 percent and 3.00, 1 q/ha and 10.00 percent. The demonstration's average gross and net returns for the rajmash and greengram crops, respectively, were 44.44 and 145.33 percent, 70.00 and 289.55 percent  greater than the farmer’s practices. In rajmash and greengram, the average benefit-cost ratio was higher with 44 and 145 percent respectively. Variations in agro-climatic factors, soil fertility, biotic stresses, economic status, and management practices were found to cause variations in the technology gap and index percentage. By encouraging farmers to use sustainable technical practices for increasing the yield and productivity of pulse crops, this variation can be reduced. With the application of pesticide, the performance of enhanced technology was shown to be most successful in controlling the smallest number of afflicted plants/m2 as well as the smallest number of pods/plants. Under demonstrations, production was higher than local practice. In order to increase the area and production of pulses in the Kupwara District of Jammu and Kashmir, pulse production and protection technology has a wide range of potential applications.

Keywords: CFLD, pulses, rajmash, greengram technology, extension gap

How to Cite

Bhat , R. A., Malik , K. M., Din , S. M. ud, Hakeem , S. A., Raina , F. A., Bhat , F. N., & Nissar , R. (2023). Pulse Productivity and Profitability as Influenced by Cluster Frontline Demonstrations in Kupwara District of Jammu and Kashmir, India. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, 13(11), 905–912. https://doi.org/10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113238


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