A Comprehensive Review on Climate Change and Its Effects

Abhijeet *

Department of Plant Biotechnology, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of IT and Biotechnology, Bharati Vidyapeeth (Deemed to be University), Pune – Satara Road, Pune 411046, India.

E. A. Singh

Department of Plant Biotechnology, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of IT and Biotechnology, Bharati Vidyapeeth (Deemed to be University), Pune – Satara Road, Pune 411046, India.

M. R. Shindikar

Department of Applied Sciences and Humanities, COEP Technological University, Shivajinagar, Pune-411005, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Organizations of all life forms from species to ecosystems are impacted by the global process of Climate Change. Human civilizations are also vulnerable to changing climatic conditions. Scientific evidence shows that anthropogenic activities have resulted in global warming of 1.1 degrees Celsius. This is increasingly impacting nature so also human life everywhere. Despite efforts to adapt to the changing climate extreme events such as heatwaves over land and in the ocean droughts and flooding have caused widespread and pervasive impacts on cities and infrastructure and limit the chances of a livable future for all. In a naturally occurring process of climate change, destructive impacts have become more likely due to human interventions. The extent and magnitude of climate change impacts are larger for each additional fraction of warming than estimated so are the risks projected for the future. The impact involves severe and widespread disruptions to nature and to society, reducing our ability to grow nutritious food or provide clean drinking water. Multiple climate hazards are also occurring simultaneously with often cascading impacts. These impacts are becoming increasingly complex and challenging to manage. How these will affect nature and people depends on the speed and level. After the study of almost 100 review articles on climate change, we have shared an overview of what exactly happening to our environment and what are repercussions the future generation is going to face.  

Keywords: Climate change, global warming, consequences, socioeconomic impacts, diseases, mitigation, adaptation, greenhouse gases, emission, carbon footprint, blue carbon

How to Cite

Abhijeet, Singh , E. A., & Shindikar , M. R. (2023). A Comprehensive Review on Climate Change and Its Effects. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, 13(11), 924–931. https://doi.org/10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113240


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