Development and Validation of a Scale Measuring the Attitude of farmers towards Climate Smart Agriculture

Rohit *

Department of Agricultural Extension, CSAUA&T, Kanpur (U.P.), India.

Harish Chandra Singh

Department of Extension Education, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering & Technology, Etawah, India.

Mayank Singh

Department of Extension Education, Udai Pratap Autonomous College, Varanasi (U.P.), India.

Kumari Asha

Department of Agricultural Extension, CSAUA&T, Kanpur (U.P.), India.

Shani Kumar Singh

Department of Agricultural Extension, CSAUA&T, Kanpur (U.P.), India.


Department of Agricultural Extension, CSAUA&T, Kanpur (U.P.), India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


The measurement of attitudes is a critical endeavour in the realm of social and psychological research, enabling a deeper understanding of human behaviours, preferences, and beliefs. Constructing a reliable and valid scale to assess attitudes requires a systematic approach that encompasses various stages, such as conceptualization, item generation, scale refinement, pilot testing, psychometric analysis, and validation. A summated (Likert) rating scale was used to develop the scale. A total of 60 statements, consisting of 45 positive and 15 negative statements, were framed, of which 22 statements (19 positive and 3 negative) were retained in the final scale. The reliability of the scale was calculated by using the split-half method. The validity of the scale was tested by experts’ judgment. The psychometric properties of the scale include: the Pearson product-moment correlation between two sets was 0. 0.598; reliability of the test 0.748(P<0.01) and Cronbach = 0.759, which means the scale is consistent in measurement. This scale can be used to measure the attitude of students in similar situations outside the study area with suitable modifications. 

Keywords: Attitude, climate-smart agriculture, agricultural practices, reliability

How to Cite

Rohit, Harish Chandra Singh, Mayank Singh, Kumari Asha, Shani Kumar Singh, and Abhijeet. 2023. “Development and Validation of a Scale Measuring the Attitude of Farmers towards Climate Smart Agriculture”. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change 13 (11):1705-12.


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