Status of River Water in India: A Review

Pooja Kumari

Department of Environmental Science, Dr. Yashwant Singh Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Himachal Pradesh, India.

Mohan Singh Jangra *

Department of Environmental Science, Dr. Yashwant Singh Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Himachal Pradesh, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Water means life which is a cyclic, inexhaustible, renewable prime natural resource. It is both a basic human need and a valued asset possessed by all living creatures. Hydrosphere, cryosphere, atmosphere, lithosphere and biosphere are all sources of water around the world. Water covers 71 % of the earth’s surface but only 1% of water is potable. Rivers like the Ganga, Yamuna and Sabarmati are revered throughout India. River water is critical for commercial and industrial development, hydroelectric power generation, agriculture, new multipurpose dams and tourism attractions. However, the presence of different contaminants such as pesticides, heavy metals, organic waste, chemical waste and direct sewage discharge has harmed the river's water quality. In India, river water pollution is a major issue that has harmed not only human and animal health, but also the economy of the country. In this review, a substantial number of studies on river water pollution in India are examined. Data on various physical, chemical, and biological characteristics are carefully analysed and interpreted, and it is discovered that river water in India is severely polluted. Furthermore, after careful interpretation of data and discussions published in research articles, this review explains the interrelationships among distinct physical and chemical parameters. EC and TDS are complementary to each other and temperature has a direct impact on pH and DO levels. Also, BOD and DO are reciprocally related with each other. This review provides a concise set of guidelines for assessing river water pollution and calculation of water quality index.

Keywords: Importance, water pollution, parameters, interrelationship, water quality index

How to Cite

Kumari, P., & Jangra , M. S. (2023). Status of River Water in India: A Review. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, 13(11), 2049–2059.


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