Weed Population Dynamics under Organic, Bio-dynamic, Conventional Bt and Non-Bt Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)
Issue: 2023 - Volume 13 [Issue 11]
D. V. S. Akshay *
Department of Agronomy, Agricultural College, Bapatla (Acharya N G Ranga Agricultural University), India.
N. D. Parlawar
Vasantrao Naik College of Agricultural Biotechnolgy, Yavatmal, India.
J. P. Deshmukh
Department of Agronomy, Dr. PDKV, Akola, India.
A. S. Riar
N. M. Konde
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Dr. PDKV, Akola, India.
*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Aim: In order to compare the weed seed bank and population dynamics under organic, biodynamic, Bt-conventional, and non-Bt conventional management systems of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), a field experiment was carried out.
Study Design: Randomized Block Design (RBD)
Place and Duration of Study: bioRe-FiBL research trails, bioRe Association, Kasrawad, Khurgone, Madhya Pradesh during the kharif season of 2020-21.
Methodology: Five distinct crop management techniques were used in the field experiment, each duplicated four times, and the experiment was set up using a randomized block design. The treatments were distributed at random to different plots. The five management treatments were Absolute Control (no fertilizers), Conventional management of non-Bt cotton, Conventional management of Bt cotton, Bio-dynamic and Organic management of cotton. For the duration of the experiment, four 1 m × 1 m (1 m2) quadrats were randomly placed on each experimental plot's four sides, and different biometric observations were recorded from each quadrant according to its treatment. For the purpose of collecting the necessary observations, two of these quadrants were regularly weeded every 20 days, while the other two were left unweeded for the duration of the experiment.
Results: The dominant weed species includes Panicum dichotomiflorum, Cyperus rotundus, Paspalum dilatatum, Euphorbia hirta, Acalypha indica and Digeria arvensis. Poaceae was the dominant family in terms of composition. There was very less variation in the weed flora between the treatments. Significantly higher weed seed bank, weed species, weed density and weed dry weight were observed in Organic and Biodynamic cotton than in the Conventional cotton. Weed control efficiency was found to be maximum in the Conventional cotton compared to the Organic and Biodynamic cotton.
Conclusion: From the experiment, it can be concluded that the Conventional cotton especially Conventional management Bt Cotton was found to be most efficient among all the treatments. However, the Organic cotton was observed with high number of overall plant species and best in conserving the plant species biodiversity.
Keywords: Bio-dynamic, Bt, conventional, cotton, organic, weed
How to Cite
Ministry of Textiles. Cotton sector. Updated by Fibre-I section on 12.9.2019.
Cotton Outlook Report- January to May 2021. Agricultural Market Intelligence Centre, ANGRAU, Lam;2021.
VIB (Flemish Institute for Biotechnology). Bt Cotton in India – A success story for the environment and local welfare; Mimeo;2013.
Kooistra K, Termorshuizen A. The sustain-ability of cotton. consequences for man and Environment. Wageningen: Wageningen Agricultural University;2006.
Akshay DVS, Banik A, Kumar GA. Beyond conventional agriculture: exploring organic, biodynamic, and natural farming. Vigyan Varta. 2023;4(9):88-91.
Koepf HH, Petersson BD, Schaumann W. Biodynamic agriculture: An introduction. Anthroposophic Press, Hudson, New York. 1976;430.
Ayyadurai P, Poonguzhalan R, Gokila J. Effect of crop weeds competition in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Agriculture Rev. 2013;2(34):157-161.
Buchanan GA, Burns ER. Influence of weed competition on cotton. Weed Sci. 1970;18:149-154.
Sankaran S. Controlling weeds in cotton. Indian Fmg. 1977;26(12):36-37.
Jain SC, Iyer BG, Jain HC, Jain NK. Nutrient competition studies in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) under different weed control system in Madhya Pradesh. Indian J. Weed Sci. 1981;13:18-25.
Naylor REL. Encyclopedia of Applied Plant Sciences (Second Edition). 2017;3:485-492.
Borgy B, Reboud X, Peyrard N, Sabbadin R, Gaba S. Dynamics of weeds in the soil seed bank: a hidden Markov model to estimate life history traits from standing plant time series. PLoS one. 2015;10(10).
Panse VG, Sukhatme PV. Statistical methods for agricultural workers. ICAR, Pub., New Delhi. 1967;359.
Grundy AC, Jones NE. What is the weed seed bank? In: Weed Management Handbook (ed R.E.L. Naylor). Blackwell Science and BCPC, Oxford. 2002;39-62.
Nazar R, Begum S, Naz A, Memon RA, Akram Z. Weed flora of Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agricultural University Rawalpindi: Winter aspect. Pakistan J Weed Sci Res. 2008;14(1-2):55-72.
Memon RA, Bhatti GR, Khalid S, Ahmed S. Ilustrated weed flora of cotton crop of Khairpur district, Sindh, Pakistan., Pakistan J Botany. 2014;46(1):5-12.
Nalini K, Murhukrishnan P, Chinnusamy C, Vennila C. Weeds of cotton - A Review. Agri. Rev. 2015;36(2):140-146.
Jain HC, Jain SC, Deshmukh SC. Cultural and chemical weed control in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum Lin.) Nimar Region of Madhya Pradesh. Indian J of Weed Sci. 1985;17(4):1-8.
Ngouajio M, McGiffen M. Going organic changes weed population dynamics. Hort. Tech. 2002;12:10.21273/ HORTTECH.12.4.590.
Albrecht H. Development of arable weed seedbanks during the 6 years after the change from conventional to organic farming. Weed Res. 2005;45:339-350.
Adam KB, Beata FS. Biodiversity of weeds and soil seed bank in organic and conventional farming systems. Res for Rural Devel. 2018;2.
Tena E, Hiwet AG, Dejene M. Quantitative and qualitative determination of weeds in cotton-growing areas of humera and metema, northwestern ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Applied Science and Technology. 2012;3(1):57-69.
Lynne CB, John PR, Ann CK. Biodynamic preparations: Short-term effects on crops, soils, and weed populations. American J Alternative Agriculture. 2000;15(3):110-118.
Graziani F, Onofri A, Pannacci E, Tei F, Guiducci M. Size and composition of weed seedbank in long-term organic and conventional low-input cropping systems. European J Agronomy. 2012;39:52-61.
Poudel DD, Horwath WR, Lanini WT, Temple SR, van Bruggen AHC. Comparison of soil N availability and leaching potential, crop yields and weeds in organic, low-input and conventional farming systems in northern California; Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. 2002;90(2):125-137.0
Karkanis A, Bilalis D, Efthimiadou A, Katsenios N. Comparison between conventional and organic weed management: growth and yield of leek (Allium porrum L.). Hort. Sci. (Prague). 2012;39:81–88.
Akshay DV, Parlawar ND, Deshmukh JP, Riar AS. Soil Weed Seed Bank under different Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) Management Systems. Biological Forum – An International Journal. 2022;14(4):1300-1305.