Evaluating the Behaviour of Sahiwal Calves under Azolla pinnata Feeding During the Cold Season

Ninad Bhatt *

Livestock Production Management, ICAR-NDRI Karnal, India.

Ramesh Chandra

Livestock Production Management, ICAR-NDRI Karnal, India.

Suresh Kumar

Livestock Production Management, ICAR-NDRI Karnal, India.

Deepesh Bharat Mishra

Animal Nutrition Division, ICAR-NDRI Karnal, India.

Asish Debbarma

Livestock Production Management, ICAR-NDRI Karnal, India.


Livestock Production Management, ICAR-IVRI Bareilly, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


The purpose of the present research was to evaluate the feeding behaviour of Sahiwal calves raised under Azolla pinnata feeding throughout the cold season in the morning hours. Eighteen female Sahiwal calves weighing 56 kg at four months of age were used for this experiment, and they were split into three treatment groups. Treatment groups T1 and T2 received 15% and 30% of their concentrate's protein supplementation from Azolla pinnata, respectively, whereas the control group received diet that was complied with ICAR, 2013 feeding guidelines. Feeding behaviour of calves were analysed with the help of instantaneous scan sampling technique and weekly 8 hours of behaviour was recoreded ( 2 hours in a day, four times per week) in early morning hours from 09.00 to 11.00 am. Eating behaviour at 1st month of study was statistically significant in treatment groups T1 (26.5±0.29) and T2 group (26.5±0.20) as compared to control group (24.375±0.23) while numerically higher in treatment groups over the whole study period as Azolla pinnata has better mineral profiling and protein rich source, rumination time period was higher in T1 and T2 group and it might be due to the better resting behaviour in the treatment groups. However, better health status was reported in treatment groups over the control groups.  From, this study it may be concluded that Azolla pinnata feeding may acts as an alternate protein source by improving the feeding and resting behaviour without affecting the overall performance of calves.

Keywords: Azolla pinnata, behaviour, calves, morning, Sahiwal

How to Cite

Bhatt , N., Chandra , R., Kumar , S., Mishra , D. B., Debbarma , A., & Rajneesh. (2023). Evaluating the Behaviour of Sahiwal Calves under Azolla pinnata Feeding During the Cold Season. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, 13(11), 2912–2917. https://doi.org/10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i113461


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