Participation of Head Reach and Tail-end Farmers and their Relation between Profile Characteristics in Water Users’ Associations in Tungabhadra Command Area of Koppal District of Karnataka, India
Issue: 2023 - Volume 13 [Issue 11]
Rakesh Bhatthad *
Department of Agricultural Extension Education, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur, Karnataka, India.
Raghuprasad K. P.
Department of Agricultural Extension, Agricultural Technology and Information Centre (ATIC), University of Agricultural Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
Department of Agricultural Extension, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
Department of Seed Science and Technology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
Patil S. S.
Department of AS, AM & CS, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The present study conducted during Kharif 2020 investigates the participation of head reach and tail-end farmers within Water Users' Associations (WUAs) in the Tungabhadra Command Area of Koppal district. The study aims to understand and compare the engagement levels of farmers situated at different positions within the irrigation system. Using an ex-post facto research design, data was collected from 120 farmers across twelve WUAs in Gangavathi and Karatagi taluks. Statistical analysis revealed distinctive patterns in the participation of head reach and tail-end farmers within these associations. The findings suggest that head reach farmers, benefiting from assured water access, exhibited moderate to poor levels of participation in WUAs. Contrarily, tail-end farmers, often facing water scarcity issues, demonstrated better engagement levels, effectively managing available water resources through diverse agricultural practices. Moreover, an in-depth analysis explored the relationship between profile characteristics and farmers' participation in WUAs. Variables such as social participation, economic and achievement motivations, extension contacts, and management orientations significantly influenced farmers' involvement in water management activities. Therefore, the findings emphasize the need for training programs and interactive sessions between farmers, WUA officials, and authorities to enhance effective water resource utilization. Further, understanding the varying levels of participation based on geographical advantage or disadvantage can help tailor strategies to improve equitable water distribution and management within these associations.
Keywords: Participation, water users' associations, equitable water distribution
How to Cite
Umamaheshwara MS. A study on community participation in irrigation tank management in Haveri district. Ph.D. Thesis (Unpub.), Univ. Agric. Sci. Dharwad; 2009.
Zhang L, Heerink N, Dries L, Shi X. Water users associations and irrigation water productivity in northern China. Ecological Economics. 2013;95:128–136.
OFWM. “Water Users’ Associations.” On Farm Water Management, Directorate General Agriculture, Punjab; 2015.
Available:“http://ofwm.agripunjab.gov.pk/services registration”, accessed on March 7, 2015.
Nitin Bassi, Parul Rishi, Nirmalya Choudhury. Institutional organizers and collective action: The case of water users' associations in Gujarat, India, Water International. 2010;35(1):18-33.
Akkamahadevi Naik. An analysis of farmers’ participation in effective canal irrigation management in Krishna command area. Ph.D. Thesis (Unpub.), Uni. Agric. Sci. Bangalore; 2019.
Joshi PK, Jha AK, Wani SP, Joshi L, Shiyani RL. Meta-analysis to assess impact of watershed program and people's participation. Comprehensive assessment research report 8. Sri Lanka: Comprehensive assessment secretariat; 2005.
Pant N. PIM/IMT: Conditions of success in large canal systems of India. Paper presented at the 4th Asian Regional Conference & 10th International Seminar on Participatory Irrigation Management, Tehran, Iran; 2007.
Suresh, TV, Ramesh CH. Extent of participation of farmers in sujala Kalinganahallihalla watershed project. Andhra Agric. J. 2008;55(3):405-407.
Alam A, Kobayashi H, Matsumura I, Esham M. Factors influencing farmers participation in participatory irrigation management: A comparative study of two irrigation systems in Northern Areas of Pakistan. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences. 2012;275.
Souvik G, Ashwanikumar. How participatory irrigation management reform influences agriculture performance. Current Science. 2012;103:4-25.
Hauser M, Lindtner M, Prehsler S, Probst L, Farmer participatory research: Why extension workers should understand and facilitate farmers’ role transitions. Journal of Rural Studies. 2016;47:52-61.
Maryani A, Haryanto Y, Anwarudin O. Strategy of agricultural extension to improve participation of the farmers in special effort in increasing rice production. International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR). 2017; 36(4):163-174.
PRASAD, D. R., 2004, Participation of partners in agricultural research extension and farmers linkage mechanisms in Krishna Godavari zone of Andhra Pradesh. Ph.D. Thesis, A.N.G.R. Agric. Univ., Hyderabad, India.
Ningareddy A study on knowledge, extent of participation and benefits derived by participation farmers of the watershed development programme in Raichur district of Karnataka state. M. Sc. (Agri.), Thesis (Unpub.), Uni. Agric. Sci., Dharwad; 2005.
Schmidt S, Magigi W, Godfrey B. The organization of urban agriculture: Farmer associations and urbanization in Tanzania. Cities Journal. 2015;42(1)L:153-159.
Gedara KM, Wilson C, Pascoe S, Robinson T. Factors affecting technical efficiency of rice farmers in village reservoir irrigation systems of Sri Lanka. Journal of Agricultural Economics. 2012; 63:627–638.
Madhava RKV. People’s participation in watershed development programme implemented by government and non-government organization- A comparative analysis. M.Sc. (Agri.) Thesis (Unpub.), Uni. Agric. Sci. Dharwad; 2001.
Pratul A. Parthasarathy R. Impact of Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM) on economic growth, (Case studies of Water Users Associations (WUAs) in Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh (AP), Madhya Pradesh (MP) and Maharashtra), Aga Khan Foundation. 2012;1-15.
Anwarudin O, Maryani A. The effect of institutional strenghening on participation of farmers and self-reliance in Bogor Indonesia. International Journal of Research in Social Sciences. 2017;7(4): 409-422.
van Koppen B, Sokile CS, Lankford BA, Hatibu N, Mahoo H, Yanda PZ. Water rights and water fees in rural Tanzania. In F. Molle & J. Berkoff (Eds.), Irrigation water pricing: The gap between theory and practice. Wallingford: CABI; 2007;6:143–164.
Pasaribu SM, Routray JK. Performance of farmer-managed irrigation systems for rice production in East Java Province, Indonesia. International Journal of Water Resources Development. 2005;21(3):473–491.
Shivaji S. Role of Water users’ association in management, operation and maintenance of irrigation systems in India. 2nd World Irrigation Forum. 2016;1-8.