Participation of Head Reach and Tail-end Farmers and their Relation between Profile Characteristics in Water Users’ Associations in Tungabhadra Command Area of Koppal District of Karnataka, India

Rakesh Bhatthad *

Department of Agricultural Extension Education, University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur, Karnataka, India.

Raghuprasad K. P.

Department of Agricultural Extension, Agricultural Technology and Information Centre (ATIC), University of Agricultural Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

Ganesamoorthi S.

Department of Agricultural Extension, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.


Department of Seed Science and Technology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

Patil S. S.

Department of AS, AM & CS, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


The present study conducted during Kharif 2020 investigates the participation of head reach and tail-end farmers within Water Users' Associations (WUAs) in the Tungabhadra Command Area of Koppal district. The study aims to understand and compare the engagement levels of farmers situated at different positions within the irrigation system. Using an ex-post facto research design, data was collected from 120 farmers across twelve WUAs in Gangavathi and Karatagi taluks. Statistical analysis revealed distinctive patterns in the participation of head reach and tail-end farmers within these associations. The findings suggest that head reach farmers, benefiting from assured water access, exhibited moderate to poor levels of participation in WUAs. Contrarily, tail-end farmers, often facing water scarcity issues, demonstrated better engagement levels, effectively managing available water resources through diverse agricultural practices. Moreover, an in-depth analysis explored the relationship between profile characteristics and farmers' participation in WUAs. Variables such as social participation, economic and achievement motivations, extension contacts, and management orientations significantly influenced farmers' involvement in water management activities. Therefore, the findings emphasize the need for training programs and interactive sessions between farmers, WUA officials, and authorities to enhance effective water resource utilization. Further, understanding the varying levels of participation based on geographical advantage or disadvantage can help tailor strategies to improve equitable water distribution and management within these associations.

Keywords: Participation, water users' associations, equitable water distribution

How to Cite

Bhatthad, R., Raghuprasad K. P., Ganesamoorthi S., Parashivamurthy, & Patil S. S. (2023). Participation of Head Reach and Tail-end Farmers and their Relation between Profile Characteristics in Water Users’ Associations in Tungabhadra Command Area of Koppal District of Karnataka, India. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, 13(11), 3162–3170.


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