Advances in the Biology, Behavior, Ecology, and Management of the Sal Heartwood Borer, Hoplocerambyx spinicornis Newman, 1842 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae): A Review

Deep Shikha *

Department of Entomology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004, India.

Shruti Gurappa Biradar

Department of Entomology, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri, India.

Sharanappa C. H.

Department of Entomology, Malla Reddy University Hyderabad, India.

P. Thilagam

Horticultural College and Regional Research Institute Paiyur 635112 Krishnagiri District, Tamil Nadu India.

Lalit Upadhyay

Agroforestry, SKUAST Jammu, India.

L. S. Chaudhary

Department of Entomology, NAU, Navsari, India.

Chandan Kumar Panigrahi

Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Siksha 'O' Anusandhan, deemed to be University, Bhubaneswar, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


This extensive research on Hoplocerambyx spinicornis, a notorious pest inflicting substantial damage on Sal trees (Shorea robusta) in India. The focus is on the beetle's biology, behavior, ecological implications, and the current strategies for its management. The Sal tree, a vital component of Indian forests, faces significant threats from H. spinicornis, whose life cycle and destructive larval stage are closely examined. The review highlights the species' taxonomy within the Cerambycidae family and details its distinct morphological characteristics, particularly the adaptations observed in different developmental stages. The beetle's host selection process, largely dictated by the physiological state of Sal trees, and its feeding behavior, both in larval and adult stages, are critically analyzed for their extensive impact on tree health and forest structure. The ecological implications of H. spinicornis infestations are profound, with substantial effects on biodiversity and forest dynamics. This beetle's interaction with other species, including natural predators and symbiotic relationships, forms a complex ecological web influencing forest health. In addressing management strategies, the review covers a spectrum of approaches, from early detection methods like pheromone trapping to biological controls utilizing natural enemies and microbial agents. The role of chemical treatments, despite their efficacy, raises environmental concerns, highlighting the need for sustainable approaches. Cultural and mechanical controls, such as silvicultural practices and sanitation logging, are discussed as part of an integrated pest management (IPM) framework, which combines various strategies in a balanced and ecologically sensitive manner. The review identifies key challenges and future directions, emphasizing the necessity of genetic studies, long-term ecological research, and the development of sustainable management strategies. The impact of external factors such as climate change and habitat alteration on H. spinicornis and Sal forests is critically examined, underscoring the need for adaptive management strategies. This review aims to provide a holistic understanding of H. spinicornis, offering insights for researchers, forest managers, and policymakers involved in the conservation of Sal forests.

Keywords: Hoplocerambyx, Shorea robusta, cerambycidae, biodiversity, infestation

How to Cite

Shikha , Deep, Shruti Gurappa Biradar, Sharanappa C. H., P. Thilagam, Lalit Upadhyay, L. S. Chaudhary, and Chandan Kumar Panigrahi. 2024. “Advances in the Biology, Behavior, Ecology, and Management of the Sal Heartwood Borer, Hoplocerambyx Spinicornis Newman, 1842 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae): A Review”. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change 14 (1):796-806.


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