Phenological Variation in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Varieties through Foliar Application of Cytokinin Analogs and Nutrients under Water Deficit Stress

Madhana Keerthana S *

Department of Plant Physiology, College of Agriculture, JNKVV, Jabalpur-482004, MP, India.

R Shiv Ramakrishnan

Department of Plant Breeding & Genetics, Seed Technology Research Centre, College of Agriculture, JNKVV, Jabalpur-482004, MP, India.

Gangishetti Ranjithkumar

Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Sri Krishnadevaraya College of Horticultural Sciences, Anantapuramu, India.

Bakeshwar Yadav

Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, JNKVV, Jabalpur-482004, MP, India.

Anubha Upadhyay

Department of Plant Physiology, College of Agriculture, JNKVV, Jabalpur-482004, MP, India.

R K Samaiya

Department of Plant Physiology, College of Agriculture, JNKVV, Jabalpur-482004, MP, India.

Radheshyam Sharma

Biotechnology Centre, JNKVV, Jabalpur-482004, MP, India.

Ashish Kumar

Department of Plant Breeding & Genetics, Seed Technology Research Centre, College of Agriculture, JNKVV, Jabalpur-482004, MP, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), a rainfed crop predominantly grown in temperate and subtropical climates, faces significant challenges in production due to terminal drought stress impacting various phenological stages. This study addresses the challenges posed by terminal drought stress on the phenological stage of chickpea varieties viz., JG 36 and JG 14. The experiment was conducted during the Rabi seasons of 2021-2022 and 2022-2023 at the Experimental Research Farm, Seed Technology Research Unit, JNKVV, Jabalpur (M.P), using a split-split plot design with three replications. This research also investigates the impact of foliar applications of cytokinin analogs viz., Thiourea, Thidiazuron, and Benzyladenine and nutrients viz., ZnSO4 and KCl on chickpea under water deficit stress conditions. The results revealed significant differences in days to pod formation, seed formation, physiological maturity, and harvest maturity among the irrigation levels, varieties, and foliar spray of plant growth regulators and nutrients. Under different irrigation levels, D1 (Irrigation at 30 DAS and flower initiation) exhibited delayed phenological stages of the crop, while D2 (Drought stress at flowering up to physiological maturity) showed an early onset of all the phenological stages. Under water deficit conditions, JG 14 exhibited accelerated maturity beyond its typical early maturation in comparison to well-watered conditions, highlighting the impact of environmental stress on varietal responses. With respect to the application of plant growth regulators and nutrients, treatment T12 (TDZ @ 10 ppm + 1% KCl) significantly delayed pod and seed formation, as well as physiological and harvest maturity as compared to untreated control (T1). Foliar application of TDZ @ 10 ppm + 1% KCl (T12) enhanced seed filling duration by 2.59 days compared to the untreated control. Further investigations are needed to identify the impact of Thidiazuron and KCl in enhancing seed yield and seed weight of chickpea under optimal and sub-optimal soil water conditions, to provide recommendations for chickpea growers.

Keywords: Benzyladenine, chickpea, phenology, thidiazuron, water deficit stress

How to Cite

Madhana Keerthana S, Ramakrishnan, R. S., Ranjithkumar, G., Yadav, B., Upadhyay, A., Samaiya, R. K., Sharma, R., & Kumar, A. (2024). Phenological Variation in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Varieties through Foliar Application of Cytokinin Analogs and Nutrients under Water Deficit Stress. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, 14(2), 135–148.


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