The Efficiency of Black Soldier Fly Larvae with Vegetable, Fruit and Food Waste as Biological Tool for Sustainable Management of Organic Waste

T. Karthikeyani

Department of Environmental Sciences, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641003, Tamil Nadu, India.

K. Sivasubramanian *

Department of Environmental Sciences, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641003, Tamil Nadu, India.

M. Maheswari

Department of Environmental Sciences, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641003, Tamil Nadu, India.

N. Chitra

Department of Agricultural Entomology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641003, Tamil Nadu, India.

S. Saravanan

ICAR - Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Madurai, India.

P. Jothimani

Department of Environmental Sciences, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641003, Tamil Nadu, India.

S. Karthika

Department of Environmental Sciences, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641003, Tamil Nadu, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

This study investigated the sustainable management of wet organic waste using Black Soldier Fly Larvae (BSFL) for an innovative biological approach to waste management. The organic wet wastes such as fruit, vegetable, and food wastes were processed and fed to BSFL larvae from day 5 and the bioconversion process was carried out at Black Soldier Fly Unit, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University for 21 days. Among the three wastes, the highest bioconversion efficiency was recorded in fruit waste with 67% Substrate Reduction, 10.8% Efficiency of Conversion of Digested feed, 5.7% Bio Conversion Rate, and 4.18 Waste Reduction Index after 21 days. Whereas vegetable and food waste achieved similar bioconversion efficiency. The results suggest that BSFL-based bioconversion can be an effective and eco-friendly waste management and resource recovery technique to significantly lower the volumes of organic wet waste while converting it into high-value biomass and leading to a circular economy model.

Keywords: Black soldier fly, bioconversion efficiency, organic wet waste management, waste reduction indices, waste to biomass conversion


How to Cite

Karthikeyani , T., Sivasubramanian , K., Maheswari , M., Chitra , N., Saravanan , S., Jothimani , P., & Karthika , S. (2024). The Efficiency of Black Soldier Fly Larvae with Vegetable, Fruit and Food Waste as Biological Tool for Sustainable Management of Organic Waste. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, 14(2), 441–448. https://doi.org/10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23959

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Barragán-Fonseca KY, Barragán-Fonseca KB, Verschoor G, van Loon JJ, Dicke M. Insects for peace. Current opinion in insect science. 2020;40:85-93. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cois.2020.05.011

Zheng L, Hou Y, Li W, Yang S, Li Q, Yu Z. Biodiesel production from rice straw and restaurant waste employing black soldier fly assisted by microbes. Energy. 2012; 47(1):225-229. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2012.09.006

Mishra A, Suthar S. Bioconversion of fruit waste and sewage sludge mixtures by black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae. Environmental research. 2023;218: 115019. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2022.115019

Dutta S, He M, Xiong X, Tsang DC. Sustainable management and recycling of food waste anaerobic digestate: A review. Bioresource Technology. 2021;341: 125915. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125915

Van Huis A. Edible insects contributing to food security? Agriculture & Food Security. 2015;4:1-9. Available:https://doi.org/10.1186/s40066-015-0041-5

Matheka R, Raude JM, Murunga S. Resource recovery from organic wastes using Black Soldier Fly Larvae. African Journal of Science, Technology and Social Sciences. 2022;1(2):16-25. Available:https://doi.org/10.58506/ajstss.v1i2.14

Dortmans B, Diener S, Bart V. Zurbrügg C. Black soldier fly biowaste processing: a step-by-step guide: eawag; 2017.

Permana AD, Ramadhani Eka Putra JEN. Growth of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae fed on spent coffee ground. Paper presented at the IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science; 2018. Available:https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/187/1/012070

Rehman K, Rehman A, Cai M, Zheng L, Xiao X, Somroo AA, Zhang J. Conversion of mixtures of dairy manure and soybean curd residue by black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens L.). Journal of Cleaner Production. 2017;154:366-373. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.04.019

Myers HM, Tomberlin JK, Lambert BD, Kattes D. Development of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae fed dairy manure. Environmental entomology. 2014; 37(1):11-15. Available:https://doi.org/10.1093/ee/37.1.11

AOAC. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. In. (Reprinted from: 16 th ed); 1990.

Mahmood S, Ali A, Zurbrügg C, Dortmans B, Asmara DR. Rearing performance of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) on municipal biowaste in the outdoor ambient weather conditions of Pakistan and Indonesia. Waste Management & Research. 2023;41(3):644-652. Available:https://doi.org/10.1177/0734242X221123495

Diener S, Gutiérrez FR, Zurbrügg C, Tockner K. Are larvae of the black soldier fly-Hermetia illu-cens-a financially viable option for organic waste management in Costa Rica. Paper presented at the Proceedings Sardinia; 2009.

Pliantiangtam N, Chundang P, Kovitvadhi A. Growth performance, waste reduction efficiency and nutritional composition of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae and prepupae reared on coconut endosperm and soybean curd residue with or without supplementation. Insects. 2021;12(8):682. Available:https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12080682

Gold M, Cassar CM, Zurbrügg C, Kreuzer M, Boulos S, Diener S, Mathys A. Biowaste treatment with black soldier fly larvae: Increasing performance through the formulation of biowastes based on protein and carbohydrates. Waste Management. 2020;102:319-329. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2019.10.036

Jucker C, Lupi D, Moore CD, Leonardi MG, Savoldelli S. Nutrient recapture from insect farm waste: bioconversion with Hermetia illucens (L.)(Diptera: Stratiomyidae). Sustainability. 2020; 12(1):362. Available:https://doi.org/10.3390/su12010362

Amrul NF, Kabir Ahmad I, Ahmad Basri NE, Suja F, Abdul Jalil NA, Azman NA. A review of organic waste treatment using black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens). Sustainability. 2022;14(8): 4565. Available:https://doi.org/10.3390/su14084565

Dortmans B, Diene, S, Verstappen B, Zurbrügg C. Black soldier fly biowaste processing. Eawag–Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology Department of Sanitation, Water and Solid Waste for Development (Sandec); 2017.

Putra RE, Margareta A, Kinasih I. The digestibility of banana peel and testa coconut and its effects on the growth and mortality of black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens) at constant feeding rates. Biosfer: Jurnal Tadris Biologi. 2020; 11(1):66-77.

Scieuzo C, Franco A, Salvia R, Triunfo M, Addeo NF, Vozzo S, Francia AD. Enhancement of fruit byproducts through bioconversion by Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae). Insect Science. 2023;30(4):991-1010.

Available:https://doi.org/10.1111/1744-7917.13155

Priyambada IB, Sumiyati S, Puspita A, Wirawan R. Optimization of organic waste processing using Black Soldier Fly larvae Case study: Diponegoro university. Paper presented at the IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science; 2021. Available:https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/896/1/012017

Zulkifli S, Jayanegara A, Pramudya B, Fahmi MR, Rahmadani M. Alleviation of Selected Environmental Waste through Biodegradation by Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) Larvae: A Meta-Analysis. Recycling. 2023;8(6):83. Available:https://doi.org/10.3390/recycling8060083

Fitriana E, Laconi E, Jayanegara A. Influence of various organic wastes on growth performance and nutrient composition of black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens): A meta-analysis. Paper presented at the IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science; 2021. Available:https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/788/1/012051

Lalander C, Diener S, Zurbrügg C, Vinnerås B. Effects of feedstock on larval development and process efficiency in waste treatment with black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens). Journal of Cleaner Production. 2019;208:211-219. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.10.017

Sanjaya Y, Nurjhani M, Halimah M. The role of black soldier fly (BSF) Hermetia illuncens as organic waste Treatment. Paper presented at the Journal of Physics: Conference Series; 2019. Available:https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1317/1/012094

Singh A, Srikanth B, Kumari K. Determining the black soldier fly larvae performance for plant-based food waste reduction and the effect on biomass yield. Waste Management. 2021;130: 147-154. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2021.05.028

Salomone R, Saija G, Mondello G, Giannetto A, Fasulo S, Savastano D. Environmental impact of food waste bioconversion by insects: Application of Life Cycle Assessment to process using Hermetia illucens. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2017;140:890-905. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.06.154