Growth and Biomass Models for Three Fast-growing Tree Species under High-density Plantation

Bijay Kumar Singh *

ICFRE -Eco Rehabilitation Centre, Prayagraj, India.

Anita Tomar

ICFRE -Eco Rehabilitation Centre, Prayagraj, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Three fast-growing trees, viz., Populus deltoides, Eucalyptus spp. and Casuarina equisetifolia were studied, in high-density plantation at Padilla, Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh with following treatments viz., T1: Poplar (1×1m), T2: Eucalyptus (1×1m), T3: Casuarina (1×1m), T4: Poplar (1.2×1.2 m), T5: Eucalyptus (1.2×1.2 m), T6: Casuarina (1.2×1.2 m), T7: Poplar (1.5×1.5 m), T8: Eucalyptus (1.5×1.5 m) and T9: Casuarina (1.5×1.5 m). The experiment was established in year July 2021 and data was collected in June 2022. The result indicate the maximum height was recorded in T2: Eucalyptus (1×1 m) 3.81 m followed by T5: Eucalyptus (1.2×1.2 m) 3.78 m, T8: Eucalyptus (1.5×1.5 m) 3.40 m which was at par with each other and minimum in T9: Casuarina (1.5×1.5 m) 2.42 m whereas the maximum girth was found in T4: Poplar (1.2×1.2 m) 6.91 cm followed by T2: Eucalyptus (1×1 m) 6.61 cm, T5: Eucalyptus (1.2×1.2 m) 6.16 cm, T1: Poplar (1×1 m) 5.91 cm which was at par with each other and minimum in T9: Casuarina (1.5×1.5 m) 3.22 cm after one year. Various linear function was attempted to predict biomass based on GBH (G) and Height (H). Prediction accuracy of Height, girth model was slightly better than the height and girth model. Linear model (Y=a + bH + cG), where Y denotes dependent variable (biomass) and H and G denotes independent variable (Height or Girth), performed better (than the remaining tested models) in terms of estimation precision and prediction accuracy. The AGB was maximum was found in T2: Eucalyptus (1×1m) 0.676 kg tree-1 followed by T5: Eucalyptus (1.2×1.2 m) 0.598 kg tree-1 and minimum in T9: Casuarina (1.5×1.5 m) 0.214 kg tree-1. After completion of one year Eucalyptus (1×1 m) showed best growth among all treatments.

Keywords: Growth, biomass, linear model, fast-growing tree species, high-density plantation

How to Cite

Singh , B. K., & Tomar , A. (2024). Growth and Biomass Models for Three Fast-growing Tree Species under High-density Plantation. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, 14(2), 562–570.


Download data is not yet available.


FAO, Fast -growing tree species for inductrial plantation in developing countries. Unasylva. 1965;79:19(4). Available:

Sedjo RA, The potential of high-yield plantation forestry for meeting timber needs. New For.1999; 17:339–359.

McKenney DW, Yemshanov D, Fox G, Ramlal E, Cost estimates for carbon sequestration from fast growing poplar plantations in Canada. For Policy Econ. 2004;6:345–358.

Dhiman N. Effect of planting density on growth, yield and fruit quality of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cv. Jeromine. (Nauni) Solan (HP): Dr. Yashwant Singh Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, 2018. [Google Scholar]

Goswami AK, Thakre M, Nagaraja A, Prakash J, High density planting system in fruit crops. Biotech Articles. 2014:1. [Google Scholar]

Keith H, Barrett D Keenan. Review of allometric relationships for estimating woody biomass for New South Wales, the Australian capital territory, victoria, Tasmania, and South Australia. National Carbon Accounting System Technical Report 5B. Australian Greenhouse Office, Canberra. 2000;114.

Avery TE, Burkhart HE. Forest measurement, 4 Ed. McGraw-Hill, NY. 1994;408.

Parresol BR. Assessing trees and stand biomass: A review with examples and critica1 comparisons. For. Sci.1999;45:573-593.

Ter-Mikaelian MT, Korzukhin MD. Biomass equations for sixty-five North American tree species. For. Ecol. Manage. 1997;97:1-24.

Zianis D, Muukkonen P, Mäkipä R, Mencuccini M. Biomass and stem volume equations for tree species in Europe. Silv. Fenn. Monogr. 2005:4:63.

Nirmal, Ajit, Handa AK. Biomass and volume models for clonal Eucalyptus tereticornis coppice under agroforestry systems in central India. Indian Journal of Agroforestry. 2021;23(1):54-60.

Giri N, Kumar R, Rawat L, Kumar P. Development of Biomass Expansion Factor (BEF) and estimation of carbon pool in Ailanthus excelsa Roxb Plantation. J Chem Eng Process Technol. 2014;5(6):1-4. Available:

Caustion DR. Biometrical, structural and physiological relationship among tree parts. In; Attributes of Trees as Crops Plants (eds. M. G. R., Cannell and J. E. Jackson). Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Huntingdon. 1985;137159.

Feller MC. Generalized versus site-specific biomass regression equations for coastal British Colombia. Bioresource Technology. 1992;39:9-16.;

Antonio N, Tome M, Tome J, Soares P, Fontes L. Effects of tree, stand, and sitevariables on the allomtry of Eucalyptus globulus tree biomass. Canadian Journal of Forest research. 2007;37:895-906.

Singh KB, Tomar A, Khan AF, Beauty K. Growth, biomass and carbon sequestration of fast-growing tree species under high-density plantation in Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh, India. Current Science. 2022; 122(5):618-622.

Srivastav A, Tomar A, Agarwa lYK. Performance of Eucalyptus clones in Trans-Ganga region of Uttar Pradesh, India. Indian J. of Agroforestry. 2020 ;22(1):43-47.

Tomar A, Srivastav A. Early growth performance of Populus deltoides Clones in Prayagraj. Indian Journal of Plant Sciences. 2020;9:31-35.

Behera LK, Patel DP, Gunaga RP, Mehta AA, Jadeja DB. Clonal evaluation for early growth performance of Eucalyptus in South Gujarat, India. Journal of Applied and Natural Science. 2016;8(94):2066-2069.

Kumar P, Mishra KA, Kumar M, Chaudhari KS, Singh R, Singh K, Rai P, Sharma KD. Biomass production and carbon sequestration of Eucalyptus tereticornis plantation in reclaimed sodic soils of north-west India. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2019;89(7):1091–1095.

Mandal RA, Kumar B, Yadav V, Yadav KK, Dutta IC, Haque SM. Development of allometric equation for biomass estimation of Eucalyptus camaldulensis: A study from Sagarnath Forest, Nepal. International Journal of Biodiversity and Ecosystems. 2013;1(1):001-007.

Vidyasagaran K, Paramathma M. Biomass prediction of Casuarina equisetifolia, forest. Plantations in the west coastal plains of Kerala, India. Ind. J. Sci. Res. and Tech. 2014;2(1):83-89.

Wongchai W, Promwungkwa A, Insuan W. Above-ground Biomass allometric equation and dynamics accumulation of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Acacia Hybrid Plantations in Northern Thailand. International Journal of Renewable Energy Research. 2020; 10(4):1664- 1673.

Singh B, Dhillon GPS, Gill RIS, Kaur J. Biomass production of high density Leucaena leucocephala plantation under different levels of nutrients. The Indian Forester. 2019;145(1):34-37.

Jha KK. Biomass production and carbon balance in two hybrid poplar (Populus euramericana) plantations raised with and without agriculture in southern France. Journal of Forestry Research. 2018; 29:1689–1701.

Swamy SL, Mishra A. Comparison of biomass and c storage in three promising fast growing tree plantations under agroforestry system in sub-humid tropics of Chhattisgarh, India. Universal Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014;2(8):284-296. DOI: 10.13189/ujar.2014.020802

Rawat L, Kamboj SK, Kandwa A. Biomass expansion factor and root-to-shoot ratio of some tree species of Punjab, India. The Indian Forester. 2015;141(2):146-153.

Soares P, Tome M. Biomass expansion factors for Eucalyptus globulus stands in Portugal. Forest Systems. 2012;21(1): 141-152.