Temperature Tolerance in the Five Field Strains of Trichogramma chilonis from Northern Districts of Tamil Nadu, India

B. Prabhu

Department of Agricultural Entomology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India.

Y. S. Johnson Thangaraj Edward *

Department of Agricultural Entomology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India.

R. Vishnu Priya

Department of Agricultural Entomology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India.

A. Ramanathan

Agricultural Research Station, Thanjavur, India.

P. Jeyaprakash

Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, AD Agrl. College and Research Institute, Trichy, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

The egg parasitoid, Trichogramma chilonis is a potential egg parasitoid in the agricultural ecosystem, reducing many lepidopteran pest incidences. The laboratory strains of T. chilonis was significantly inferior to the ecotypes collected from fields in their parasitisation potential and tolerance to temperature due to continuous exposure to temperature extremes in the field. Hence, a study was undertaken to evaluate the laboratory reared strain of T. chilonis with that of other ecotypes to identify a temperature tolerant ecotype for use in pest management programme. Five ecotypes of T. chilonis were collected from farmer's fields on sugarcane and citrus using sentinel egg technique by exposing egg cards of Corcyra cephalonica, mass reared on C. cephalonica for three successive generations and tested for their relative tolerance to temperature in comparison with the laboratory population. The emergence percentage of the parasitoid varied with the ecotypes tested and all the field collected ecotypes recorded increased emergence compared to the laboratory population. At 150 C, the emergence was significantly higher in Chitteri ecotype (83.44%) followed by Arungunam and Amirthapuram ecotype (78.65 and 75.57%). The performance of all the ecotypes were best at 200 C and Chitteri ecotype performed significantly better compared to other ecotypes and the laboratory population with an adult emergence of 95.66 per cent. It was followed by Arungunam ecotype (88.65%) at 200 C. While the laboratory population and other ecotypes failed to develop at 350 C, Chitteri and Arungunam ecotypes were able to develop with 9.66 and 7.25 per cent adult emergence from the parasitised eggs.

Keywords: Egg parasitoid, Trichogramma chilonis, ecotype, temperature tolerance


How to Cite

Prabhu, B., Edward , Y. S. J. T., Priya, R. V., Ramanathan, A., & Jeyaprakash, P. (2024). Temperature Tolerance in the Five Field Strains of Trichogramma chilonis from Northern Districts of Tamil Nadu, India. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, 14(2), 706–711. https://doi.org/10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i23984

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Sparks TH, Dennis RLH, Croxton PJ, Cade M. Increased migration of Lepidoptera linked to climate change. Eur. J. Entomol. 2007;104:139–143.

Smith SM. Biological control with Trichogramma: Advances, successes, and potential of their use. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 1996;41:375–406.

Kumar P, Sekhar JC, Kaur J. Trichogrammatids: Integration with other methods of pest control. In: Sithanantham S, Ballal CR, Jalali, SK and Bakthavatsalam N, editors. Biological Control of Insect Pests Using Egg Parasitoids. Springer: New Delhi, India. 2013;191–208.

Andrade GS, Pratissoli D, Dalvi LP, Desneux N, dos Santos HJG. Performance of four Trichogramma species (Hymenoptera: Trichogra -mmatidae) as biocontrol agents of Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) under various temperature regimes. J. Pest Sci. 2011;84: 313–320.

Ganesh Kumar M, Sundara Babu PC, Johnson Thangaraj Edward YS, Justin CGL. Influence of host eggs on the ecotype of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma chilonis Ishii (Trichogrammatidae: Hymenoptera). Madras agric. J. 1994; 81: 490-492.

del Pino M, Gallego JR, Suárez, EH and Cabello, T. Effect of Temperature on Life History and Parasitization Behavior of Trichogramma achaeae Nagaraja and Nagarkatti (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae). Insects 2020;11:482- 499.

Ghosh E, Ballal CR, and Verghese A. Temperature based differences in biological parameters of some potential species/strains of Trichogramma. J. Biol. Control 2017;31:82–89.

Samara R, Monje JC, Zebitz, CPW and Qubbaj T. Comparative biology and life tables of Trichogramma aurosum on Cydia pomonella at constant temperatures. Phytoparasitica. 2011;39:109–119.

Maceda A, Hohmann CL, Santos HR, Temperature effects on Trichogramma pretiosum Riley and Trichogrammatoidea annulata De Santis. Brazilian Arch. Biol. Technol. 2003; 46: 27–32.

Foerster MR and Foerster LA. Effects of temperature on the immature development and emergence of five species of Trichogramma. Biocontrol 2009;54:445–450.

Bueno RCOdF, Parra JRP and Bueno ADF. Biological characteristics and thermal requirements of a Brazilian strain of the parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum reared on eggs of Pseudoplusia includens and Anticarsia gemmatalis. Biol. Control. 2009;51:355–361.

Altoé T, Pratissoli D, De Carvalho JR, Dos Santos HJG, Paes JPP, Bueno RCODF and Bueno ADF. Trichogramma pretiosum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) parasitism of Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) eggs under different temperatures. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 2012;105:82–89.

Scholler M, Hassan SA. Comparative biology and life tables of Trichogramma evanescens and T. cacoeciae with Ephestia elutella as host at four constant temperatures. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 2001; 98:35–40.

Cabello T and Vargas P. The effect of temperature on the bionomic of Trichogramma cordubensis Vargas and Cabello (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae). In: Voegele J, Waage, J and van Lenteren J. editors. Trichogramma and Other Egg Parasites. I.N.R.A. Pub.: Paris, France. 1988;155–164.

Foerster MR. Marchioro CA and Foerster LA. Temperature dependent parasitism, survival, and longevity of five species of Trichogramma Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) associated with Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Neotrop. Entomol. 2014;43:176–182.

Chen L, Enkegaard A, Sorensen JG. Temperature affects biological control efficacy: A microcosm study of Trichogramma achaeae. Insects 2021;12: 95-103.

Negahban M, Jahromi AS, Ghane-Jahromi M, Mostafa H, Zalucki MP. Response of Trichogramma brassicae (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae) to temperature: Utilizing thermodynamic models to describe curvilinear development. Crop Protection 2021;143:105562

Ganesh Kumar M, Sundara Babu PC , Johnson Thangaraj Edward YS. 1994. Contact toxicity of insecticides to the eco-types of egg parasitoid Trichogramma chilonis Ishii. Madras agric. J. 1994;81: 437-439.

Tabebordbar F, Formisano G, Shishehbor P, Ebrahimi E, Giorgini M and Sorensen JG. Variation among populations of Trichogramma euproctidis (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) revealed by life table parameters: perspectives for biological control. J. Econ. Entomol. 2023;116(4): 1119–1127.

Prabhu B, Johnson Thangaraj Edward YS, Vishnupriya R, Ramanathan A, Jeyaprakash, P. Pesticide tolerance in the five field strains of Trichogramma chilonis from northern districts of Tamil Nadu. Int. J. Plant Soil Sci. 2024;36(3): 264-269.