Standardization of Formulation and Application Approaches for Field Implementation of EPNs

Babita Kumari

Department of Nematology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana, 125004, India.

Anil Kumar

Department of Nematology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana, 125004, India.


Department of Nematology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana, 125004, India.

Deepak Mourya *

Department of Plant Pathology, Shri Khushal Das University, Hanumangarh, Rajasthan, 335801, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) live parasitically inside the infected insect host, and so they are termed as endoparasitic. They infect different types of insect living in the soil like the larval forms of moths, butterflies and beetles as well as adult forms of beetles, grasshoppers and crickets. The present experiment was conducted under both laboratory and field conditions at CCS Haryana Agriculture University, Hisar. Two most virulent strains of EPNs, Metarhabditis amsactae strain HAR-St-II and HAR-Ht-III were taken and their formulations were standardized using six different media i.e. cadaver based formulation, water, alginate gel, foam chips, clay chips and water dispersible granules. Among these formulations, cadaver based formulation was found to be best. Maximum numbers of active IJs after 90 days were obtained from this formulation were 3370 and 2728 /Petri plate in strain HAR-St-II and HAR- Ht-III of M. amsactae, respectively. Further this, experiment was conducted at field level for EPNs suspension was standardized using different size of nozzle opening i.e. 25 µm, 50 µm, 75 µm and 100 µm on knapsack sprayer. Spodoptera litura was selected as a test insect in okra crop for foliar application of EPNs and results revealed that 100 µm nozzle opening size gave maximum larval mortality of S. litura. Per cent mortality of S. litura was increased with increase in size of nozzle and period of observation

Keywords: Entomopathogenic nematodes, Spodoptera litura, formulation, nozzle size, mortality

How to Cite

Kumari, B., Kumar , A., Sujata, & Mourya , D. (2024). Standardization of Formulation and Application Approaches for Field Implementation of EPNs. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change, 14(2), 837–846.


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