Ecological Assessment of Restored Rock Phosphate Mine Spoils in the Maldevta Area of Garhwal Himalayas

Parul Bhatt Kotiyal *

Forest Ecology, and Climate Change Division, India.

Ritika Gupta

Forest Research Institute, Dehradun, 248006, Uttarakhand, India.

Jasin S

FRIDU, Dehradun, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


This research explores the complex interaction between vegetation restoration and soil recovery, with a particular focus on the ecological restoration of an area in Maldevta, Garhwal Himalayas, that was once mined. The Himalayan ecology, which is abundant in minerals and biodiversity, is under a great deal of stress from mining, building roads, and grazing. The research area experienced open-pit mining, which degraded the soil and eliminated vegetation from what had once been a tropical dry mixed deciduous forest. Analyzing the restored soil's physical and chemical properties reveals a varied profile that affects fertility, structure, and nutrient composition. The loamy sand is made up of different percentages of sand (72.4%), silt (16.96%), and clay (9.89%). The chemical characteristics of the soil include potassium (5.10%), phosphorus (0.33%), nitrogen (0.042%), and electrical conductivity (EC) of 0.21 ohms/cm. The pH of the soil is 7.80. Employing the quadrat method for vegetation analysis, the study underscores the dominance of key plant species like Lantana camara, Mallotus philippensis, and Bombax ceiba in the restored ecosystem. The results demonstrate how restoration initiatives improve soil conditions, vegetation structure, and species diversity. By highlighting the crucial relationship between soil and vegetation dynamics, this study adds insightful information that can improve the effectiveness of ecological restoration projects. The work supports the long-term establishment of self-sustaining ecosystems by offering a thorough grasp of the intricate biological mechanisms leading to the rehabilitation of degraded landscapes in the fragile Himalayan region.

Keywords: Bidens pilosa, bombax ceiba, ecological restoration, eupatorium adenophorum, forest restoration, lantana camara, mallotus philippensis, murraya koenigii, soil characteristics

How to Cite

Kotiyal , Parul Bhatt, Ritika Gupta, and Jasin S. 2024. “Ecological Assessment of Restored Rock Phosphate Mine Spoils in the Maldevta Area of Garhwal Himalayas”. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change 14 (3):479-93.


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