Root Adaptation Traits under Water Logging Conditions

Shambhavi Modgil *

Department of Genetics and Amp; Plant Breeding, School of Agriculture, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara-144411, Punjab, India.

Nilesh Talekar

Department of Genetics and Amp; Plant Breeding, School of Agriculture, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara-144411, Punjab, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

A problem known as "waterlogging" occurs when the soil is saturated, which can seriously hinder plant growth and development. Waterlogging limits the amount of oxygen that can reach the roots of the plant, which affects the physiological and biochemical changes that occur in the plant. Plants, however, have developed a variety of adaptive strategies to deal with this kind of stress. Several morphological adaptations are displayed by plants to withstand waterlogging. Aerenchyma development, adventitious roots, and a shallow root system are a few of these. Plants respond to waterlogging stress by undergoing metabolic changes at the biochemical level. Increased ethylene synthesis, a stress hormone, controls the formation of aerenchymas and adventitious root growth, among other adaptive responses. In addition, plants store osmoprotectants such as soluble carbohydrates and proline to preserve the osmotic balance within their cells and prevent harm from waterlogging. Plants are able to tolerate waterlogging stress because of complex interaction of morphological, physiological, and biochemical adaptations together. In order to produce resilient crop varieties and sustainable agricultural techniques, it is imperative to comprehend the underlying mechanisms determining root architectural features under waterlogging circumstances. Subsequent investigations aimed at clarifying the molecular mechanisms behind plant reactions to waterlogging will aid in the creation of novel approaches to lessen the deleterious consequences of this environmental stressor.

Keywords: Waterlogging, submergence, abiotic stress, waterlogging tolerance


How to Cite

Modgil , Shambhavi, and Nilesh Talekar. 2024. “Root Adaptation Traits under Water Logging Conditions”. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change 14 (6):1-12. https://doi.org/10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i64205.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Franco JA, Bañón S, Vicente MJ, Miralles J, Martínez-Sánchez JJ. Root development in horticultural plants grown under abiotic stress conditions–a review. The Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology. 2011;86(6):543-556.

Sharma S, Bhatt U, Sharma J, Kalaji HM, Mojski J, Soni V. Ultrastructure, adaptability, and alleviation mechanisms of photosynthetic apparatus in plants under waterlogging: A review. Photosynthetica. 2022;60(3):430-444.

Available:https://www.fao.org/soils-portal/soilex/soil-keywords/waterlogging/en/

Aderonmu AT. Assessing the impact of changing climate on agriculture in Missouri and the use of crop insurance as an adaptation strategy (1980-2010). University of Missouri-Kansas City; 2015.

Alpuerto JB, Hussain RMF, Fukao T. The key regulator of submergence tolerance, SUB1A, promotes photosynthetic and metabolic recovery from submergence damage in rice leaves. Plant, Cell & Environment. 2016;39(3):672-684.

Nazir F, Fariduddin Q, Hussain A, Khan TA. Brassinosteroid and hydrogen peroxide improve photosynthetic machinery, stomatal movement, root morphology and cell viability and reduce Cu-triggered oxidative burst in tomato. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 2021;207: 111081.

Bailey-Serres J, Voesenek LACJ. Flooding stress: acclimations and genetic diversity. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 2008;59:313-339.

Herzog M, Striker GG, Colmer TD, Pedersen O. Mechanisms of waterlogging tolerance in wheat–a review of root and shoot physiology. Plant, Cell & Environment. 2016;39(5):1068-1086.

Ghobadi ME, Ghobadi M, Zebarjadi A. Effect of waterlogging at different growth stages on some morphological traits of wheat varieties. International Journal of Biometeorology. 2017;61(4):635-645.

Hartman S, Sasidharan R, Voesenek LA. The role of ethylene in metabolic acclimations to low oxygen. New Phytologist. 2021;229(1):64-70.

Bramley H, Tyerman SD, Turner DW, Turner NC. Root growth of lupins is more sensitive to waterlogging than wheat. Functional Plant Biology. 2011;38(11):910-918.

Falakboland Z, Zhou M, Zeng F, Kiani-Pouya A, Shabala L, Shabala S. Plant ionic relation and whole-plant physiological responses to waterlogging, salinity and their combination in barley. Functional Plant Biology. 2017;44(9):941-953

Parad GA, Zarafshar M. Striker GG, Sattarian A. Some physiological and morphological responses of Pyrus boissieriana to flooding. Trees. 2013;27:1387-1393.

Joshi R, Kumar P. Lysigenous aerenchyma formation involves non-apoptotic programmed cell death in rice (Oryza sativa L.) roots. Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants. 2012;18: 1-9.

Irfan M, Hayat S, Hayat Q, Afroz S, Ahmad A. Physiological and biochemical changes in plants under waterlogging. Protoplasma. 2010;241:3-17.

Rich SM, Watt M. Soil conditions and cereal root system architecture: review and considerations for linking Darwin and Weaver. Journal of Experimental Botany. 2013;64(5): 1193-1208.

Kuroha T, Nagai K, Gamuyao R, Wang DR, Furuta T, Nakamori M, Ashikari M. Ethylene-gibberellin signaling underlies adaptation of rice to periodic flooding. Science, 2018;361(6398): 181-186.

Pan J, Sharif R, Xu X, Chen X. Mechanisms of waterlogging tolerance in plants: Research progress and prospects. Frontiers in Plant Science. 2021;11:627331.

Phukan UJ, Mishra S, Shukla RK. Waterlogging and submergence stress: affects and acclimation. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology. 2016;36(5):956-966.

Hattori Y, Nagai K, Furukawa S, Song XJ, Kawano R, Sakakibara H, Ashikari M. The ethylene response factors SNORKEL1 and SNORKEL2 allow rice to adapt to deep water. Nature, 2009;460(7258):1026-1030.

Colmer TD, Voesenek LACJ. Flooding tolerance: suites of plant traits in variable environments. Functional Plant Biology. 2009;36(8):665-681.

Lynch J. Root architecture and plant productivity. Plant Physiology 1995;109:7–13.

López-Bucio J, Cruz-Ramırez A, Herrera-Estrella L. The role of nutrient availability in regulating root architecture. Current Opinion in Plant Biology. 2003;6(3):280-287.

Siddique KHM, Chen YL, Rengel Z. Efficient root system for abiotic stress tolerance in crops. Procedia Environmental Sciences. 2015;29:295.

Wu J, Wang J, He N, Liang Y, Peng D. Morphological, physiological and biochemical adaptation of plants to waterlogging stress. Plant Science. 2022;318:111271.

Pedersen O, Sauter M, Colmer TD, Nakazono M. Regulation of root adaptive anatomical and morphological traits during low soil oxygen. New Phytologist. 2021;229(1):42-49.

Bhusal N, Kim HS, Katuwal RB. Effects of waterlogging on leaf physiology and morphology of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam). Botanical Studies. 2020;61(1):1-10.

Wu J, Wang J, Hui W, Zhao F, Wang P, Su C, Gong W. Physiology of plant responses to water stress and related genes: A review. Forests. 2022;13(2):324.

Yan K, Zhao S, Cui M, Han G, Wen P. Vulnerability of photosynthesis and photosystem I in Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) exposed to waterlogging. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 2018;125:239-246.

Zhang P, Lyu D, Jia L, He J, Qin S. Physiological and de novo transcriptome analysis of the fermentation mechanism of Cerasus sachalinensis roots in response to short-term waterlogging. BMC Genomics. 2017;18:1-14.

Iqbal N, Nazar R, Syeed S, Masood A, Khan NA. Exogenously-sourced ethylene increases stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, and growth under optimal and deficient nitrogen fertilization in mustard. Journal of Experimental Botany. 2011;62(14):4955-4963.

Hudgins JW, Franceschi VR. Methyl jasmonate-induced ethylene production is responsible for conifer phloem defense responses and reprogramming of stem cambial zone for traumatic resin duct formation. Plant Physiology. 2004;135(4): 2134-2149.

Qi X, Li Q, Ma X, Qian C, Wang H, Ren N, Chen, X. Waterlogging‐induced adventitious root formation in cucumber is regulated by ethylene and auxin through reactive oxygen species signalling. Plant, Cell & Environment. 2019;42(5):1458-1470.

Colmer TD, Kotula L, Malik AI, Takahashi H, Konnerup D, Nakazono M, Pedersen O. Rice acclimation to soil flooding: low concentrations of organic acids can trigger a barrier to radial oxygen loss in roots. Plant, Cell & Environment. 2019;42(7):2183-2197

Winkel A, Visser EJ, Colmer TD, Brodersen KP, Voesenek LA, Sand‐Jensen K, Pedersen O. Leaf gas films, underwater photosynthesis and plant species distributions in a flood gradient. Plant, Cell & Environment. 2016;39(7):1537-1548.

Ayi Q, Zeng B, Hijmans R, Zhang H, Song W, Green MB. Improving rice production through marker-assisted outperforming QTL pyramiding. Molecular Plant. 2016;9(5):679-688.

Abiko T, Kotula L, Shiono K, Malik AI, Colmer TD, Nakazono M. Enhanced formation of aerenchyma and induction of a barrier to radial oxygen loss in adventitious roots of Zea nicaraguensis contribute to its waterlogging tolerance as compared with maize (Zea mays ssp. mays). Plant, Cell & Environment. 2012;35(2):240-253.

Ayi Q, Zeng B, Liu J, Li S, van Bodegom PM, Cornelissen JH. Oxygen absorption by adventitious roots promotes the survival of completely submerged terrestrial plants. Annals of Botany. 2016;118(4):675-683.

Bai T, Li C, Ma F, Shu H, Han M. Exogenous salicylic acid alleviates growth inhibition and oxidative stress induced by hypoxia stress in Malus robusta Rehd. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation. 2009;28:358-366.

Yamauchi T, Abe F, Tsutsumi N, Nakazono M. Root cortex provides a venue for gas-space formation and is essential for plant adaptation to waterlogging. Frontiers in Plant Science. 2019;10;259.

Arif Y, Sami F, Siddiqui H, Bajguz A, Hayat S. Salicylic acid in relation to other phytohormones in plant: A study towards physiology and signal transduction under challenging environment. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 2020; 175:104040.

Yamauchi T, Colmer TD, Pedersen O, Nakazono M. Regulation of root traits for internal aeration and tolerance to soil waterlogging-flooding stress. Plant physiology. 2018;176(2):1118-1130.

Yamauchi T, Tanaka A, Inahashi H, Nishizawa NK, Tsutsumi N, Inukai Y, Nakazono M. Fine control of aerenchyma and lateral root development through AUX/IAA-and ARF-dependent auxin signaling. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2019;116(41): 20770-20775.

Kovar JL, Kuchenbuh RO. Commercial importance of adventitious rooting to agronomy. In Biology of adventitious root formation, ed. by T.D. Davis and B. E. Haissig, New york. 1994;25–35.

Waszczak C, Carmody M, Kangasjärvi J. Reactive oxygen species in plant signaling. Annual Review of Plant Biology. 2018;69:209-236.

Wu H, Chen H, Zhang Y, Zhang Y, Zhu D, Xiang J. Effects of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate and paclobutrazol on the endogenous hormones of two contrasting rice varieties under submergence stress. Plant Growth Regulation. 2019;87(1):109-121.

Sasidharan R, Voesenek LA. Ethylene-mediated acclimations to flooding stress. Plant Physiology. 2015;169(1):3-12

He F, Wang HL, Li HG, Su Y, Li S, Yang Y, Xia X. Pe CHYR 1, a ubiquitin E3 ligase from Populus euphratica, enhances drought tolerance via ABA‐induced stomatal closure by ROS production in Populus. Plant Biotechnology Journal. 2018;16(8):1514-1528.

Zhu JK. Abiotic stress signaling and responses in plants. Cell, 2016;167(2):313-324.

Kazan K, Manners JM. Linking development to defense: auxin in plant–pathogen interactions. Trends in Plant Science. 2009;14(7):373-382.

Raza A, Charagh S, Zahid Z, Mubarik MS, Javed R, Siddiqui MH, Hasanuzzaman M. Jasmonic acid: A key frontier in conferring abiotic stress tolerance in plants. Plant Cell Reports. 2021;40(8): 1513-1541.

Nelissen H, Rymen B, Jikumaru Y, Demuynck K, Van Lijsebettens M, Kamiya Y, Beemster GT. A local maximum in gibberellin levels regulates maize leaf growth by spatial control of cell division. Current Biology. 2012;22(13): 1183-1187.

Arif Y, Rizuan M, Abbas R, Hasanuzzaman M, Tauseef I. Role of salicylic acid in improving photosynthetic; 2020.

Bhusal N, Kim HS, Han SG, Yoon TM. Photosynthetic traits and plant–water relations of two apple cultivars grown as bi-leader trees under long-term waterlogging conditions. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 2020;176:104111.

Colmer TD, Kotula L, Malik AI, Hartung W, West H, Davis J, Nakazono M. Regulation of aerenchyma formation involves cellular rearrangements driven by ethylene and hypoxia. Frontiers in Plant Science. 2019;10:666.

Ghobadi M, Khosravi H, Motlagh M, Bakhshandeh AM, Naderi R. Changes in the synthesis of proteins in the roots of wheat genotypes under waterlogging stress. Annual Research & Review in Biology. 2014;4(11):1755-1768.

Hartman S, Liu Z, Van Veen H, Vicente J, Reinen E, Martopawiro S, Voesenek LACJ. Ethylene-mediated nitric oxide depletion pre-adapts plants to hypoxia stress. Nat Commun. 2019;10:4020.

Yamauchi T, Tanaka A, Tsutsumi N, Inukai Y, Nakazono M. A role for auxin in ethylene-dependent inducible aerenchyma formation in rice roots. Plants. 2020;9(5):610.

Wany A, Kumari A, Gupta KJ. Nitric oxide is essential for the development of aerenchyma in wheat roots under hypoxic stress. Plant, Cell & Environment. 2017;40(12):3002-3017.

Phukan UJ, Mishra S, Shukla RK. Waterlogging and reversal of drought-induced drought tolerance in plants. In: Biochemical, physiological and morphological aspects of human welfare. InTech: Croatia; 2016..

Parad GA, Zarafshar M, Khayatnezhad M, Noori M. Influence of waterlogging stress on some physiological traits of wheat cultivars. World Applied Sciences Journal. 2013;28(5):626-632.

Yamauchi T, Abe F, Tsutsumi N, Nakazono M. Root aerenchyma formation in crop species: Roles and opportunities for genetic improvement to enhance waterlogging tolerance. Plant production science. 2019;22(3);329-342.

Das KK, Sarkar RK. Study of waterlogging stress on growth and metabolism of rice. Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad). 2001;78(3):142-148.

Raza MA, Yu Z, Suleman M, Yuan L, Younas W. Cross-kingdom plantfungal interactions: Understanding of mutual relationship for sustainable agriculture. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 2020;155:371-378.