Floral Biology of Chinar (Platanus orientalis L.) under Temperate Conditions in the Kashmir Himalayas

Oyais Ahmad Wagay *

Faculty of Forestry, SKUAST-Kashmir, India.

Anup Raj

Faculty of Forestry, SKUAST-Kashmir, India.

P. A. Khan

Faculty of Forestry, SKUAST-Kashmir, India.

J. A. Mugloo

Krishi Vigyan Kendra/Extension Training Centre, SKUAST-Kashmir, India.

Aashfaq A. Mir

Faculty of Forestry, SKUAST-Kashmir, India.

Jauhar Rafeeq

Krishi Vigyan Kendra/Extension Training Centre, SKUAST-Kashmir, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Chinar, Platanus orientalis is a huge, widely distributed, and long-lived deciduous tree native to the eastern Mediterranean. It is the only species of the Platanaceae family found in India and grows throughout the valley. Since ancient times, this particular species has garnered fascination and reverence, leading to its continuous examination and admiration. However, the information related to its floral biology is meagre. The floral biology of P. orientalis is crucial to understanding its reproductive mechanisms and ecological interactions. The present study, therefore, aimed at investigating the floral characteristics of P. orientalis. For this study, seven young sexually mature trees were selected to study the floral characteristics. It was revealed that, in general, male flowers often emerge earlier than female blosssoms. The position of the male flower is always proximal and that of the female flower is distal when present on terminal branches. The average male female ratio recorded was 7:1 and the ratio between pollen and ovules on average was 9550 to 1. The pollen-ovule ratio is a fundamental reproductive parameter that provides insights into the reproductive strategies and ecological adaptations of plant species. The floral biology of P. orientalis demonstrates its adaptation to wind pollination and efficient seed dispersal mechanisms. This knowledge enhances comprehension and aids in gaining a deeper understanding of the reproductive strategies of P. orientalis and its ecological significance within its native range. Research in this field can help in developing effective conservation strategies and utilizing this species for research purposes.

Keywords: Floral biology, distal, proximal, platanus orientalis, Kashmir Himalayas


How to Cite

Wagay , Oyais Ahmad, Anup Raj, P. A. Khan, J. A. Mugloo, Aashfaq A. Mir, and Jauhar Rafeeq. 2024. “Floral Biology of Chinar (Platanus Orientalis L.) under Temperate Conditions in the Kashmir Himalayas”. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change 14 (6):155-64. https://doi.org/10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i64217.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Wadoo MS. The trees of our heritage. Idris Publications, Srinagar, Kashmir. 2007;1: 94-104.

Kozgar MI, Khan S. Fiery chinar. Scientific Reports. 2011;54-55.

Fayaz S, Yadav BL, Manzoor S, Sodhi KK. Distribution pattern and phenology of Platanus orientalis growing in Kashmir. Trends in Biosc. 2018;11(4):475-478.

Lankinen A, Lindstrom SAM, Hertefeldt TD. Variable pollen viability and effects of pollen load size on components of seed set in cultivars and feral populations of oilseed rape. Plos One 2018;13(9).

Pers-Kamczycb E, Tyrała-Wieruckaa Z, Rabskab M, Wronska-Pilarekc D, Kamczycd J. The higher availability of nutrients increases the production but decreases the quality of pollen grains in Juniperus communis L. Journal of Plant Physiology. 2020;248:153156.

Lara B, Rojo J, Fernández-Gonzalez F, Gonzalez-García-Saavedra A, Serrano-Bravo MD, Pérez-Badia R. Impact of plane tree abundance on temporal and spatial variations in pollen concentration. Forests. 2020;11(8):817.

Wang LL, Zhang C, Yang ML, Zhang GP, Zhang ZQ, Yang YP, Duan YW. Intensified wind pollination mediated by pollen dimorphism after range expansion in an ambophilous biennial Aconitum gymnandrum. Ecology and Evolution. 2016;7(2):541–549.

Vrinceanu D, Berghi ON, Cergan R, Dumitru M, Ciuluvica RS, Giurcaneanu C, Neagos A. Urban allergy review: Allergic rhinitis and asthma with plane tree sensitization (Review). Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine. 2021;21(3):275.

Culley TM, Weller SG, Sakai AK. The evolution of wind pollination in angiosperms. Trends in Ecology and Evolution. 2002;17:361-369.

Ackerman JD. Abiotic pollen and pollination: Ecological, functional, and evolutionary perspectives. Plant Systematics and Evolution. 2000;222:167-185.

Friedman J, Barrett SCH. Wind of change: New insights on the ecology and evolution of pollination and mating in wind-pollinated plants. Annals of Botany. 2009;103(9): 1515-1527.

Kahveci H, Acar C. Determination of selection criteria for plants in urban coastal landscapes: An example of the eastern black sea coast, Turkey. Forestist. 2021;1-17

Liang C, Lu GZ, Shin HD. First report of powdery mildew of Platanus orientalis caused by Erysiphe platani in China. Plant Pathology. 2008;57(2):375.

Harder LD, Aizen MA. Floral adaptation and diversification under pollen limitation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. 2010;365(1539):529–543.

Allison TD. Pollen production and plant density affect pollination and seed production in Taxrls carzudensis. Ecology. 1990;71(2):516-522.

Moore PD, Webb JA, Collinson ME. Pollen analysis, 2nd Edn. Blackwell Scientific Publications, London. 1991;42-46:181-182.

Salisbury PA, Fripp YJ, Gurung AM, Williams WM. Floral structure and breeding system in the Brassicaceae. Plos one. 2017;12(3):33-36.

Yadav N, Pandey AK, Bhatnagar AK. Pollination biology and breeding system of maple species Acer oblongum Wall. ex DC. (Sapindaceae) Showing mixed syndromes of wind and insect pollination. Biological Sciences. 2020;90(3):489-500.

Chua KS, Borkent A, Yeng WS. Floral biology and pollination strategy of seven Tacca species (Taccaceae). Nordic Journal of Botany. 2020;38(2).

Tahir M. Plantation techniques of Populus deltoides bartr for problematic sites in temperate region of north western Himalayas. Ph. D. Thesis submitted to the Faculty of Forestry, SKUAST-K. 2015;25.

Kakui H, Tsurisaki E, Sassa H, Moriguchi Y. An improved pollen number counting method using a cell counter and mesh columns. Plant Methods. 2020;16(1).

Cruden RW. Pollen‐ovule ratios: A conservative indicator of breeding systems in flowering plants. Evolution International Journal of Organic Evolution. 2020;31(1): 32-46.

Christopher DA, Mitchell RJ, Trapnell DW, Smallwood PA, Semski WR, Karron JD. Hermaphroditism promotes mate diversity in flowering plants. American Journal of Botany. 2019;106(8):1131–1136.

Yampolsky C, Yampolsky H. Distribution of the sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliography of Genetics. 1922;3:1-62.

Renner SS, Ricklefs RE. Dioecy and its correlates in flowering plants. American Journal of Botany. 1995;82:596-606.

Renner SS. The relative and absolute frequencies of angiosperm sexual systems: Dioecy, monoecy, gynodioecy, and an updated online database. American Journal of Botany. 2014;101(10):1588–1596.

Damialis A, Fotiou C, Halley JM, Vokou D. Effects of environmental factors on pollen production in anemophilous woody species. Trees. 2011;25:253–264.

Nikolakaki SE, Hajaje HM. Phenology of flowering of the evergreen Pltanus oriental. Forest Genetics. 2001;8(3):233-236.

Muyle A, Martin H, Zemp N, Mollion M, Gallina S, Tavares R, Marais GAB. Dioecy is associated with high genetic diversity and adaptation rates in the plant genus Silene. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 2020;38(3):805–818.

Raju Solomon AJ, Ezradanam V. Pollination ecology and fruiting behaviour in a monoecious species, Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae). Current Science. 2002;83:1395-1398.

Luo C, Li K, Chen Y, Sun Y. Floral display and breeding system of Jatropha curcas L. Forestry Studies in China. 2007;9(2):114–119.

Raj A, Sailo L, Husaini AM. Evidence of proteoid roots in Chinar (Platanus orientalis L.): taxonomic implications. Current Science. 2021;120:5.

Scheepens JF, Frei ES, Armbruster GFJ, Stocklin J. Pollen dispersal and gene flow within and into a population of the alpine monocarpic plant Campanula thyrsoides. Annals of Botany. 2012; 1-10.

Pesendorfer MB, Koenig WD, Pearse IS, Knops JMH, Funk KA. Individual resource limitation combined with population-wide pollen availability drives masting in the valley oak (Quercus lobata). Journal of Ecology. 2016;104:637–645.

Gao L, Yu G, Hu F, Li Z, Li W, Peng C. The patterns of male and female flowers in the stage may not be optimal resource allocation for fruit and seed growth. Plants. 2021;10(12):2819.

Rinaldi R, Cafasso D, Strumia S, Cristaudo A, Sebastiani F, Fineschi S. The influence of a relict distribution on genetic structure and variation in the Mediterranean tree, Platanus orientalis. AoB Plants. 2019; 11(1).

Khosropour E, Attarod P, Shirvany A, Pypker TG, Bayramzadeh V, Hakimi L, Moeinaddini M. Response of Platanus orientalis leaves to urban pollution by heavy metals. Journal of Forestry Research. 2018;30(372).

Burd M, Allen TFH. Sexual allocation strategy in wind-pollinated plants. Evolution. 1987;42(2):403-407.

Goldman DA, Willson MF. Sex allocation in functionally hermaphroditic plants: A review and critique. Bot. Rev. 1986;52:157-194.

Bawa KS. Breeding of tropical hardwoods: An evaluation of underlying bases, current status, and future prospects. In: Tropical trees, variation, breeding, and conservation (Eds. J. Burley and B. T. Styles), London Acad. Press Linn Soc. Symp. Ser. 1976;2:43-59.

Gosling WD, Julier ACM, Adu-Bredu S, Djagbletey GD, Fraser WT, Jardine PE, Moore S. Pollen-vegetation richness and diversity relationships in the tropics. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany. 2018;27(2):411–418.

Reddi CS, Reddi NS. Pollen production in some anemophilous angiosperms. Grana. 1986;25:55-61.

Molina RT, Rodrigez AM, Palacios IS, Lopez FG. Pollen production in anemophilous trees. Grana. 1996;35:38-46.

Hiscock SJ. Pollen recognition during the self-incompatibility response in plants. Genome Biology. 2002; 3(2).

Severova E, Kopylov-Guskov Y, Selezneva Y, Karaseva V, Yadav SR, Sokoloff D. Pollen production of selected grass species in Russia and India at the levels of anther, flower and inflorescence. National Center for Biotechnology Information. 2022;11(3): 285.

Wang YQ, Zhang DX, Chen ZY. Pollen histochemistry and pollen: Ovule ratios in Zingiberaceae. Annals of Botany. 2004;94:583–591.

Moeinaddini M. Response of Platanus orientalis leaves to urban pollution by heavy metals. Journal of Forestry Research. 2017;30(372).