Enhancing Crop Resilience to Climate Change through Biochar: A Review

Bidisha Kundu *

Department of Agronomy, School of Agriculture, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab-144002, India.

Rajesh Kumar

Department of Agronomy, School of Agriculture, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab-144002, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Crop resilience is crucial in the face of climate change, as agricultural regions face unprecedented challenges such as rising global temperatures, altered precipitation patterns, and increased extreme weather events. These changes impact food security, crop yields, and the livelihoods of millions of farmers worldwide. Crops face threats from heat stress, changing pest and disease dynamics, water scarcity, and unpredictable growing seasons. Crop resilience involves a complex interplay of genetics, environmental factors, and agricultural practices. Researchers and agricultural scientists are exploring innovative approaches like selective breeding, genetic modification, and precision agriculture to enhance crop resilience. Integrating traditional knowledge and indigenous farming practices into modern agricultural strategies is essential for securing food production, ensuring the sustainability of agricultural systems, conserving biodiversity, and supporting community resilience in an uncertain climate future. Crop resilience is central to ensuring global food security, supporting rural livelihoods, preserving ecosystems, and advancing sustainable agriculture in the face of climate change challenges. Biochar, a climate-resilient agricultural amendment, is gaining attention for its role in enhancing agricultural sustainability and mitigating climate change. Its porous structure and high carbon content sequester carbon dioxide, improve soil health, and reduce nutrient leaching. Biochar's porous nature fosters a rich microbial community, aids in nutrient cycling, and aids in rehabilitating degraded soils. It also reduces synthetic fertilizer requirements and environmental pollution. Climate change significantly impacts crop agriculture, disrupting traditional growth patterns and threatening global food security. High temperatures cause heat stress, while droughts and floods cause soil desiccation, impairing crop yields. Increased plant diseases and pests spread, while higher CO2 levels stimulate photosynthesis but reduce essential nutrients. Rising temperatures disrupt vegetative and reproductive growth phases, pollination, and seed formation, compromising crop quality and market value. Biochar is a porous material formed through pyrolysis, a process where organic biomass is decomposed under limited oxygen conditions. It is primarily carbon-rich but contains hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and minerals. As a soil amendment, biochar is a stable carbon sink with a high carbon content of 70-90%. Its porous structure allows it to efficiently adsorb and retain water, nutrients, and organic compounds. Its large surface area facilitates interactions with soil microbes and nutrient ions, and its high CEC helps in nutrient retention and soil fertility.

Keywords: Crop yields, disease dynamics, crop resilience, soil desiccation, carbon sink, CEC


How to Cite

Kundu, Bidisha, and Rajesh Kumar. 2024. “Enhancing Crop Resilience to Climate Change through Biochar: A Review”. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change 14 (6):170-84. https://doi.org/10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i64219.

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