A Comprehensive Analysis of Drought Stress Responses in Rice (Oryza sativa L.): Insights into Developmental Stage Variations from Germination to Grain Filling

Deepanwita Sadhukhan

Department of Agronomy, School of Agriculture, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab, India.

Tiyasa Mukherjee

Department of Agronomy, School of Agriculture, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab, India.

Ayan Sarkar

Department of Agronomy and Agroforestry, School of Agriculture and Allied Sciences, The Neotia University, South 24-Parganas, West Bengal, India.

Naorem Diana Devi

Department of Agronomy, School of Agriculture, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab, India.

Dipti Bisarya *

Department of Agronomy, School of Agriculture, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab, India.

Vinai Kumar

Department of Crop Physiology, Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture & Technology (CSAUA&T), Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India.

M. Jincy

Department of Agronomy, School of Agriculture, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a critical staple food crop vulnerable to drought stress at key growth stages, namely the early seedling stage, vegetative phase, anthesis (reproductive stage), and grain ripening stage. The impact of drought stress on rice extends beyond mere water deficit, influencing a spectrum of morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses crucial for plant survival and productivity. This review synthesizes current understanding of rice responses to drought stress across its developmental stages, encompassing seed germination, seedling establishment, vegetative growth, reproductive development, and grain filling. Drought stress triggers multifaceted adaptations in rice, involving mechanisms such as escape, avoidance, tolerance, and recovery strategies to mitigate water scarcity effects. These responses are finely tuned across developmental stages, influencing traits like root architecture, stomatal conductance, photosynthetic efficiency, osmotic adjustment, and hormonal regulation. Understanding these responses is pivotal for enhancing rice resilience to drought, thereby safeguarding global food security and supporting the livelihoods of rice-dependent communities worldwide, particularly in regions like India where rice cultivation plays a crucial socioeconomic role. Challenges persist in deciphering the complex genetic and physiological networks underpinning drought responses in rice. Integrating omics approaches and advanced phenotyping techniques holds promise in unraveling these complexities and identifying genetic markers for drought tolerance. Furthermore, strategies such as breeding resilient cultivars and implementing agronomic practices tailored to specific growth stages are imperative for sustainable rice production under increasingly erratic climatic conditions. This review consolidates existing knowledge while highlighting gaps in current understanding, aiming to guide future research endeavors toward innovative solutions for enhancing rice drought resilience. By elucidating the intricate mechanisms governing rice responses to drought stress, this study contributes to the broader discourse on agricultural sustainability and climate change resilience in staple food crops.

Keywords: Drought stress, sensitivity, germination, vegetative, reproductive, ripening, resilience

How to Cite

Sadhukhan, Deepanwita, Tiyasa Mukherjee, Ayan Sarkar, Naorem Diana Devi, Dipti Bisarya, Vinai Kumar, and M. Jincy. 2024. “A Comprehensive Analysis of Drought Stress Responses in Rice (Oryza Sativa L.): Insights into Developmental Stage Variations from Germination to Grain Filling”. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change 14 (7):141-58. https://doi.org/10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i74260.


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