Climate Smart Agriculture: A Roadmap to Sustainable Food Security

Junaid Mehraj

Division of Agronomy, Sher e Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, 190025, J&K, India.

Latief Ahmed

Division of Agronomy, Sher e Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, 190025, J&K, India.

Kahkashan Qayoom *

College of Temperate Sericulture, Sher e Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, 190025, J&K, India.

Faisul Rasool

Sher e Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, 190025, J&K, India.

Raies A Bhat

Sher e Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, 190025, J&K, India.

Umer Fayaz

Division of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Sher e Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, 190025, J&K, India.

Umar Rashid Abdullah

Division of Agronomy, Sher e Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, 190025, J&K, India.

Sajad Yousuf Dar

Division of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Sher e Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, 190025, J&K, India.

Amir Hussain Mir

Division of Agronomy, Sher e Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, 190025, J&K, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Climate change (CC) and climate variability (CV) are causing irregular precipitation, rising sea levels, and frequent extreme weather events, which threaten global agricultural crop production through prolonged droughts, floods, and shifting agroclimatic zones. Addressing greenhouse gas emissions and ensuring food security are among the greatest challenges of this century. Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) emerges as a global strategy to enhance food productivity amid these uncertainties. CSA aims to create climate-resilient agricultural systems that increase soil health, water, and nutrient efficiency, provide stable yields, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. By improving farmers' incomes and resilience to climate impacts, CSA contributes to both climate change mitigation and adaptation. Future CSA development directions include leveraging advanced internet technology for secure agricultural information, optimizing cropping patterns and management, integrating "internet + weather" services, and implementing agricultural weather index-based insurance. These strategies offer new pathways for ecological protection, green agricultural development, and climate change mitigation.

Keywords: Climate change, adaptation, mitigation, food security, agricultural production, climate smart agriculture, sustainable agriculture

How to Cite

Mehraj, Junaid, Latief Ahmed, Kahkashan Qayoom, Faisul Rasool, Raies A Bhat, Umer Fayaz, Umar Rashid Abdullah, Sajad Yousuf Dar, and Amir Hussain Mir. 2024. “Climate Smart Agriculture: A Roadmap to Sustainable Food Security”. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change 14 (7):234-53.


Download data is not yet available.


IPCC. Contribution of working groups I, II and III to the fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; Climate Change: Synthesis Report; IPCC: Geneva, Switzerland; 2014

IPCC (intergovernmental panel on climate change). Annex I: glossary. Masson-Delmotte V, Zhai P, Portner HO, Roberts D, Skea J, Shukla PR, Pirani A, Moufouma-Okia W, Pean C, Pidcock R, Connors S, Matthews JB, Chen Y, Zhou X, Gomis MI, Lonnoy E, Maycock T, Tignor M, Waterfield T. (eds.). Global Warming of 1.5_C. An IPCC Special Report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5_C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways, in the context of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change, sustainable development, and efforts to eradicate poverty. IPCC, Geneva; 2018.

Leisner CP. Review: Climate change impacts on food security-focus on perennial cropping systems and nutritional value. Plant Sci. 2020;7:110412.

Hossain MS, Lu Q, Arshad M, Shahid S, Fahad S, Akhter J. Climate change and crop farming in Bangladesh: An analysis of economic impacts. Int. J. Clim. Chang. Strateg. Manag. 2019;7:424–440.

Arshad M, Kächele H, Krupnik TJ, Amjath-Babu TS, Aravindakshan S, Abbas A, Mehmood Y, Müller K. Climate variability, farmland value, and farmers’ perceptions of climate change: Implications for adaptation in rural Pakistan. Int. J. Sustain. Dev. World Ecol. 2016;11:532–544.

Amundson R, Beaudeu L. Soil carbon sequestration is an elusive climate mitigation tool. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 2018;115:11652–11656.

Onyeneke RU, Igberi CO, Uwadoka CO, Aligbe JO. Status of climate-smart agriculture in southeast Nigeria. GeoJournal. 2018;83:333-346.

Turyasingura B, Chavula P. Climate-Smart agricultural extension service innovation approaches in Uganda. International Journal of Food Science and Agriculture; 2022.

Mwungu CM, Mwongera C, Shikuku KM, Acosta M, Laderach P. Determinants of adoption of climate-smart agriculture technologies at farm plot level: An assessment from southern Tanzania; 2018.

FAO. Towards the future we want: End hunger and make the transition to sustainable agricultural and food systems. FAO, Rome; 2012.

Engel S, Muller A. Payments for environmental services to promote ‘climate-smart agriculture’ Potential and challenges. Agric. Econ. 2016;47: 173–184.

Campbell BM, Thornton P, Zougmore R, van Asten P, Lipper L. Sustainable intensification: What is its role in climate smart agriculture?. Curr. Opin. Environ. Sustain. 2014;8:39–43.

Adesipo A, Oluwaseun F, Kamil K, Ondrej K, Petra M, Ali S, Mayowa A. Smart and climate-smart agricultural trends as core aspects of smart village functions. Sensors. 2020;20:5977.

Chandra A, McNamara KE, Dargusch P. Climate-smart agriculture: Perspectives and framings. Clim. Policy. 2018;18:526–541.

FAO. Climate change, agriculture and food security. The State of Food and Agriculture: Rome: FAO. 2016;2016.

World Bank. Accelerating climate-resilient and low-carbon development: The Africa climate business plan; World Bank: Washington, DC, USA; 2015.

Adoghe AU, Popoola SI, Chukwuedo OM, Airoboman AE, Atayero AA. Smart weather station for rural agriculture using meteorological sensors and solar energy. In Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering, London, UK. 2017;5–7,1–4.

Amin A, Mubeen M, Hammad HM, Nasim W. Climate smart agriculture: An approach for sustainable food security. Agri Res Communication. 2015;3:13–21.

OECD-DAC. Available at Tracking aid in support of climate change mitigation and adaptation in developing countries; 2011.

Available: Accessed 27 October 2019

Hussain M, Butt AR, Uzma F, Ahmed R, Irshad S, Rehman A, Yousaf B. A comprehensive review of climate change impacts, adaptation, and mitigation on environmental and natural calamities in Pakistan. Environ. Monit. Assess. 2019;192:48.

Chaudhry S, Sidhu GPS. Climate change regulated abiotic stress mechanisms in plants: A comprehensive review. Plant Cell Rep. 2022;41:1–31.

Rajput VD, Minkina T, Kumari A, Harish Singh VK, Verma KK, Mandzhieva S, Sushkova S, Srivastava S, Keswani C. Coping with the challenges of abiotic stress in plants: new dimensions in the field application of nanoparticles. Plants. 2021;10:1221.

Abbass K, Qasim MZ, Song H, Murshed M, Mahmood H, Younis I. A review of the global climate change impacts, adaptation, and sustainable mitigation measures. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 2022;29:42539–42559.

Neupane D, Adhikari P, Bhattarai D, Rana B, Ahmed Z, Sharma U, Adhikari D. Does climate change affect the yield of the top three cereals and food security in the world? Earth. 2022;3:45–71.

Mahato A. Climate change and its impact on agriculture. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 2014;4(4).

Branca G, Lipper L, Neves N, Lopa D, Mwanjioka I. Payments for watershed services supporting sustainable agriculture development in Tanzania. J Environ Dev. 2011;20(3):278–302.

Awazi NP, Tchamba MN. Enhancing agricultural sustainability and productivity under changing climate conditions through improved agroforestry practices in smallholder farming systems in Sub-Saharan Africa. Afr J Agric Res. 2019;14(7):379–388.

FAO. Save and grow: A policymaker’s guide to the sustainable intensification of smallholder crop production. FAO, Rome; 2011.

Abhilash S. Science of climate change. In Climate change: Science and politics. Ravindran, P. K. (Eds). Kerala Shastra Sahitya Parishad; 2021.

Bandyopadhyay T, Muthamilarasan M, Prasad M. Millets for next generation climate-smart agriculture. Frontiers in Plant Science. 2017;8:1266.

Sapkota TB, Jat ML, Aryal JP, Jat RK, Chhetri AK. Climate change adaptation, green-house gas mitigation and economic profitability of conservation agriculture: some examples from cereal system of Indo-Gangetic Plains. J Integrative Agri. 2015;14(8):1524–1533.

Friedrich T, Kassam A. Adoption of conservation agriculture technologies: Constraints and opportunities. Invited paper at the IV World Congress on Conservation Agriculture. New Delhi, India; 2009.

Verchot L, Van Noordwijk M, Kandji S, Tomich T, Ong C, Albrecht A, Mackensen J, Bantilan C., Anupama K, Palm C. Climate change: Linking adaptation and mitigation through agroforestry. Mitig Adapt Strat Glob Chang. 2007;12:901–918. Available:

Pathak H, Wassmann R. Introducing greenhouse gas mitigation as a development objective in rice-based agriculture: II. Cost-benefit assessment for different technologies, regions and scales. Agric Syst. 2007;94:826–840.

Faures JM, Bartley D, Bazza M, Burke J, Hoogeveen J, Soto D, Steduto P. Climate smart agriculture sourcebook. FAO, Rome. 2013;557.

Altieri MA, Marcos LA, Bittencourt HV, Kieling AS, Comin JJ, Lobsyo PE. Enhancing crop productivity via weed suppression in organic no-till cropping systems in Santa Catarina, Brazil. J Sustainable Agri. 2011;35(8):1–15.


Pampolino MF, Witt C, Pasuquin JM, Johnston A, Fisher MJ. Development approach and evaluation of the nutrient expert software for nutrient management in cereal crops. Comput Electron Agric. 2012;88:103–110.

PMKSY (Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana); 2019. Available: Accessed 31 Oct 2019

Shah T. Climate change and groundwater: India’s opportunities for mitigation and adaptation. Environment Research Letters Journal. 2009;4(03):1–13.

Cardenas LB, Dukes MD. Soil moisture sensor landscape irrigation controllers: a review of multi-study results and future implications. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers. 2012;55(2):581–590.

Chartzoulakis K, Kasapakis I, Tzobanoglou. Improving water efficiency: The irrigation advisory service of Crete, Greece. In: The 3rd international conference on water resources and arid environments and the 1st Arab Water Forum; 2008.

John WH, Nicholas JC, Evan WC, Thomas MS, Bill W. IrriSatSMS irrigation water management by satellite and SMS - A utilization framework, CSIRO Land and Water Science; 2009.

Altieri MA, Nicholls CI. The adaptation and mitigation potential of traditional agriculture in a changing climate. Clim Change; 2013.


FAO. Livestock’s long shadow: environmental issues and options. FAO, Rome; 2006.

Steinfeld H, Gerber P, Wassenaar T, Castel V, Rosales M, de Haan C. Livestock’s long shadow: Environmental issues and options. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome; 2006.

Wright AG, Klieve AV. Does the complexity of the rumen microbial ecology preclude methane mitigation?. Animal Feed Science Technology. 2011;166–167:248–253.


Batima P, Bat B, Tserendash L, Bayarbaatar S, Shiirev-Adya S, Tuvaansuren G, Natsagdorj L, Chuluun T. Adaptation to climate change, vol 90. ADMON Publishing, Ulaanbaatar; 2005.

Pankaj PK, Ramana DBV, Pourouchottamane R, Naskar S. Livestock management under changing climate scenario in India. World Journal of Veterinary Science. 2013;1(1): 25–32.

Das S. Impact of climate change on livestock, various adaptive and mitigative measures for sustainable livestock production. Appro Poult Dairy Vet Sci. 2017;1(4):517.


Jha GK, Pal S, Singh A. Changing energy-use pattern and the demand projection for Indian agriculture. Agricultural Economics Research Review. 2012;25(1):61–68.

Schlamovitz JL, Becker P. Differentiated vulnerabilities and capacities for adaptation to water shortage in Gaborone, Botswana. Int. J. Water Resour. Dev. 2021;37:278–299.

Salehi M. Global water shortage and potable water safety; Today’s concern and tomorrow’s crisis. Environ. Int. 2022; 158:106936.

Nam W, Kim T, Hong E, Choi J. Regional climate change impacts on irrigation vulnerable season shifts in agricultural water availability for South Korea. Water. 2017;9:735.

Kim SM, Kang MS, Jang MW. Assessment of agricultural drought vulnerability to climate change at a municipal level in South Korea. Paddy Water Environ. 2018;16:699–714.

FAO. Climate-smart agriculture: Sourcebook. FAO: Rome, Italy; 2013.

McKinley JD, LaFrance JT, Pede VO. Climate change adaptation strategies vary with climatic stress: Evidence from three regions of Vietnam. Front. Sustain. Food Syst. 2021;10:26.

Asare-Nuamah P. Climate variability, subsistence agriculture and household food security in rural Ghana. Heliyon. 2021;7:e06928.

Janowiak MK, Dostie DN, Wilson MA, Kucera MJ, Skinner RH, Hatfield JL, Hollinger D, Swanston CW. Adaptation resources for agriculture: Responding to climate variability and change in the Midwest and Northeast. Tech. Bull. 2016;72:320856.

Van DM, Kim J. Projections on climate internal variability and climatological mean at fine scales over South Korea. Stoch. Environ. Res. Risk Assess. 2020;34:1037–1058.

Aneja VP, Schlesinger WH, Erisman JW. Effects of agriculture upon the air quality and climate: Research, policy, and regulations. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2009;43:4234–4240.

USEPA (United States Environmental Production Agency). National greenhouse gas emissions data: Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse gas emissions and sinks: 1990–2013. Wind Energy Essentials; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, USA. 2015;298–314.

Maraseni TN, Qu J. An international comparison of agricultural nitrous oxide emissions. J. Clean. Prod. 2016;135:1256–1266.

Meier J, Mauser W, Hank T, Bach H. Assessments on the impact of high- resolution-sensor pixel sizes for common agricultural policy and smart farming services in European regions. Comput. Electron. Agric. 2020;169: 105205.

Mulla DJ. Twenty-five years of remote sensing in precision agriculture: Key advances and remaining knowledge gaps. Biosyst. Eng. 2012;114:358–371.

Dandois JP, Ellis EC. High spatial resolution three-dimensional mapping of vegetation spectral dynamics using computer vision. Remote Sens. Environ. 2013;136:259–276.

Costa FG, Ueyama J, Braun T, Pessin G, Osório FS, Vargas PA. The use of unmanned aerial vehicles and wireless sensor network in agricultural applications. In Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium; IEEE: New York, NY, USA. 2012;5045–5048.

Pylianidis C, Osinga S, Athanasiadis IN. Introducing digital twins to agriculture. Comput. Electron. Agric. 2021;184: 105942.

Jusoh M, Muttalib MFA, Krishnan KT, Katimon A. An overview of the internet of things (IoT) and irrigation approach through bibliometric analysis. Earth Environ. Sci. 2021;756: 012041.

Dias RM, Marques G, Bhoi AK. Internet of things for enhanced food safety and quality assurance: A literature review. Adv. Electron. Commun. Comput. 2021;709: 653–663.

Boursianis AD, Papadopoulou MS, Diamantoulakis P, Liopa-Tsakalidi A, Barouchas P, Salahas G, Karagiannidis G, Wan SH, Sotirios KG. Internet of things (IoT) and agricultural unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in smart farming: A comprehensive review. Internet Things. 2020;18:100187.

Hamrani A, Akbarzadeh A, Madramootoo CA. Machine learning for predicting greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils. Sci. Total Environ. 2020;741:140338.

Datta A, Rao KS, Santra SC. Mandal TK, Adhya TK. Greenhouse gas emissions from rice-based cropping: Economic and technologic challenges and opportunities. Mitig. Adapt. Strateg. Glob. Chang. 2011;16:597–615.

Mi W, Sun Y, Xia S, Zhao H, MiW, Brookes PC, Liu Y, Wu L. Effect of inorganic fertilizers with organic amendments on soil chemical properties and rice yield in a low-productivity paddy soil. Geoderma. 2018;320:23–29.

Hobbs PR, Sayre K, Gupta R. The role of conservation agriculture in sustainable agriculture. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. B Biol. Sci. 2008;363:543–555.

Arunrat N, Sereenonchai S, Chaowiwat W, Wang C, Hatano R. Soil organic carbon in sandy paddy fields of Northeast Thailand: A review. Agronomy. 2020;10: 1061.

Abdi MJ, Raffar N, Zulkafli Z, Nurulhuda K, Rehan BM, Muharam FM, Khosim NA, Tangang F. Index-based insurance and hydroclimatic risk management in agriculture: A systematic review of index selection and yield-index modelling methods. Int. J. Disaster Risk Reduct. 2022;67:102653.