Influence of Diverse Growing Environments and Plant Densities on Phenological Development and Agrometeorological Indices of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in the Hyper Arid Zone of Rajasthan, India

Madan Lal Reager

Swami Keshwanand Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner 334006, Rajasthan, India.

Subhash Chandra

Swami Keshwanand Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner 334006, Rajasthan, India.

S.P. Singh

Swami Keshwanand Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner 334006, Rajasthan, India.

R.C. Bairwa

Swami Keshwanand Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner 334006, Rajasthan, India.

Naval Kishor

Swami Keshwanand Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner 334006, Rajasthan, India.

Richa Pant

Swami Keshwanand Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner 334006, Rajasthan, India.

C.K. Dotaniya

Swami Keshwanand Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner 334006, Rajasthan, India.

Vinay Kumar

Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, MS Swaminathan School of Agriculture, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Odisha 761211, India.

Sang-Min Chung

Department of Life Sciences, Dongguk University, Seoul 04620, Korea.

Anupama Singh

Faculty of Agriculture, Sri Sri University, Cuttack 754006, Odisha, India.

Chinmayee Mohapatra

Faculty of Agriculture, Sri Sri University, Cuttack 754006, Odisha, India.

Suvalaxmi Palei

Faculty of Agriculture, Sri Sri University, Cuttack 754006, Odisha, India.

Meenakshi Badu

Faculty of Agriculture, Sri Sri University, Cuttack 754006, Odisha, India.

Ankita Mohanty

Faculty of Agriculture, Sri Sri University, Cuttack 754006, Odisha, India.

Mandakini Kabi

Faculty of Agriculture, Sri Sri University, Cuttack 754006, Odisha, India.

S. Kumaraswamy

Faculty of Agriculture, Sri Sri University, Cuttack 754006, Odisha, India.

Bhagwat Singh Kherawat *

Swami Keshwanand Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner 334006, Rajasthan, India.

Mahipal Singh Kesawat *

Faculty of Agriculture, Sri Sri University, Cuttack 754006, Odisha, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) stands as a significant oilseed crop globally. The growth, development, and productivity of these plants are notably affected by the adverse impacts of global climate change. Therefore, the current study sought to examine how diverse growing environments and planting densities influence the phenological development of groundnut in the hyper-arid zone of Rajasthan, India. A field experiment spanning the kharif seasons of 2017, 2018, and 2019 was conducted at Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Swami Keshwanand Rajasthan Agricultural University, Bikaner, India. The experiment laid out in split-plot design with four replications. The treatments included three main plots for growing environments (sowing on May 15, May 30, and June 15) and three sub-plots for planting densities (1.67 lakh ha-1, 2.50 lakh ha-1 and 3.33 lakh ha-1).. The outcomes of the field experiment indicates that sowing groundnut on May 30 was statistically on par with sowing on June 15 and resulted in higher values of GDD, helio thermal units (HTU), PTI, heat use efficiency (HUE), photothermal use efficiency (PUE), and heliothermal use efficiency, as well as hygrothermal use efficiency (Hg TUE-I and II) at the initiation of flowers and peg formation stages. However, at later growth stages significantly higher values of GDD, HTU, HUE, PUE, HgTUE-I and II were observed with the May 15 sowing. These values gradually decreased with delayed sowing up to May 30 and June 15. Further, increasing the planting density from 1.67 lakh ha-1, 2.50 lakh ha-1 and 3.33 lakh ha-1 significantly enhanced the HTU, HUE, PUE, HgTUE-I and II at various phenological stages of groundnut. Therefore, these findings underscore the significance of precise timing and density control in maximizing groundnut yields under challenging environmental circumstances. By understanding and modifying these variables, farmers can mitigate the adverse effects of climate change and enhance groundnut productivity, especially in extremely arid areas like Rajasthan.

Keywords: Groundnut, growing degree day, heliothermal units, heat use efficiency, pheno-thermal index, planting density, time of sowing, yield


How to Cite

Reager, Madan Lal, Subhash Chandra, S.P. Singh, R.C. Bairwa, Naval Kishor, Richa Pant, C.K. Dotaniya, Vinay Kumar, Sang-Min Chung, Anupama Singh, Chinmayee Mohapatra, Suvalaxmi Palei, Meenakshi Badu, Ankita Mohanty, Mandakini Kabi, S. Kumaraswamy, Bhagwat Singh Kherawat, and Mahipal Singh Kesawat. 2024. “Influence of Diverse Growing Environments and Plant Densities on Phenological Development and Agrometeorological Indices of Groundnut (Arachis Hypogaea L.) in the Hyper Arid Zone of Rajasthan, India”. International Journal of Environment and Climate Change 14 (7):371-93. https://doi.org/10.9734/ijecc/2024/v14i74278.

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